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Published by Muneeb Iqbal

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Published by: Muneeb Iqbal on Nov 15, 2010
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Definition of Management 
 It is very difficult to give a precise definition of the term management. Different management authors have viewedmanagement from their own angles moreover, during the evolutionary process of management different thinkerslaid emphasis on different expects. For example, F.W. Taylor emphasized engineering aspects, Elton Mayo laidemphasis on human relations aspects, E.F.L, Brech, George R. Terry emphasis on, decision making aspect, RalphDavis stresses leadership aspect and some other like Barry Richman etc. emphasized integration or coordinationaspect.
Some Important Definition of Management 
 1. Harold KoontzManagement is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.2. George R. TerryManagement is a disconnect process consisting of planning organizing activating and controlling performed todetermine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.3. Donald J. CoughManagement is the art and science of decision making and leadership.4. Mary Cushing NileGood Management, or scientific management, achieves a social objective with the best use of human and materialenergy and time, and with satisfaction for the participants and the public.5. Henry FayolTo manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate, and to control.6. Theo Haimann and William ScottManagement is a social and technical process which utilizes, resources, influences, human action and facilitateschanges in order to accomplish organizational goals.Thus, the above definitions bring out that
Management us a social and technical process
It consists of planning, organizing staffing, leading decision making coordinating and controlling.
It is concerned with getting done i.e. accomplished pre-determined objective by the use of people andresources.
It helps in the creation, direction, maintenance and operation of organization.
It secures maximum benefits for the employer, the employees, and the community.
 Management simply means a specific process of planning, organizing, staffing directing and controlling the effortsof the people who are engaged in activities in business organization in order to attain predetermined objective of such organizations.
 Modern age is an era of management resolution. There was a time when economic development depended mainlyon scientific and mechanical inventions. However, in the modern world good management is necessary forefficient and effective working of organization, along with technological advancements.
Meaning of Management 
 Management is a wide term carrying several meanings, depending in the context in which it is used. Usually, theterm management assumes three meanings, when it is used in three different senses as follows:1. Management as a NounWhen used as a noun, management refers to managerial personnel, i.e. all those persons are concerned withgetting things alone, through other people. Such persons are charged with some responsibility and are given someauthority  responsibility of executing the policies and programs of an organization, and authority in order to
discharge their responsibilities. In this sense, management include the Board of Directions, Chairman andManaging Director, Functional Directors like Marketing Director and Finance Director, General Managers, and FirstLine Supervisors. The task of such business management is executory and supervisory in nature.2. Management as a ProcessWhen used as a process, management refers to what the management body or management committee ormanagement council or managers do, or what a manager does. In other words, in this sense, management meansthe set of functions performed by the managers. These managerial functions broadly include  Planning organizingstaffing, directing and controlling. Such functions are performed in order to get things done, through and withother people in an effective and efficient manner. This is why that management has been said to be the orderingand coordinating of functions and of the men fulfilling these functions in order to achieve a given purpose. Henry L.Sisk has also said.
Management is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives.
 3. Management as a Discipline (i.e. Subject)When used in the sense of a discipline or subject, it refers to a branch or body of knowledge and practice is otherwords, here management means the set of principles, concepts theories and practices as a subject of study forthose who intend to be good managers in various areas. Here, the management also denotes a code of conduct formanagers and does prescribe the techniques and methods of managing things.It may be noted that management has also been analyses as an economic resource, a factor of production, asystem of authority, a technique of leadership and a means of coordination or decision making.Simply stated management means getting things done through and with the individuals and groups by effectiveand efficient use of available resources.
 A level of management means the positions of managers in the organizational hierarchy. The number of level isquestion, which is related to several important elements, such as costs, status, working styles, etc. It depends onsuch factors as organizations size, technology and degree of diversity in its work activities.Three levels have been generally recognized in organizational hierarchy as follows:1. Top ManagementIt includes the top managers or management committees, such as board of directors, management council,chairman, general managers etc.2. Middle ManagementIt includes departmental heads and sectional heads, which are below top managers, out above lower managers.3. Supervisory ManagementIt is also known as lower management and includes managers, such as foreman, salesman, assistants, head clerkand supervisors.
 At different levels in the management hierarchy, the managers perform different functions as follows.1. Top ManagementTop managers functions relate mainly to designing of plans, policies and organization structure. They deal withenvironmental process and provide leadership to the organization.2. Middle ManagementIn many cases the job of the middle manager is that of intermediary between top management and supervisory oroperating management. They coordinate inputs production and outputs. They are responsible for executing theplans and policies framed by the top managers.
3. Supervisory ManagementAt this level, managers get down to the most specific and detailed aspects of the organizational task. They areresponsible for getting the technical guidance, help and solve the obstacles, doubts and inconveniences of theworkers and remove their dissatisfaction. They make recommendations for providing proper working conditionsetc.
 These are four types of managerial skills, which are required in different degrees of importance at variousmanagerial levels as follows:1. Technical SkillIt is the ability to use tools, procedures or techniques of a specialized field. It is relatively more important andrequired at supervisory level then its importance goes on reducing at middle and top levels. For example, asupervisor must have full knowledge as to how the plastic molding machine works. However, the President of acompany does not need to know much of the technical details of drilling for oil or how to refine the oil.2. Human SkillIt is the ability to work with understand and motivate other people. This skill is essential at every level of management because all managers whether at high or at low level have to deal with their subordinates.3. Conceptual Unit It is the mental ability to coordinate the organizations interests and activities and to see the organization in itsenlarged form as one whole system. This type of skill is primarily required at the top level and then at the middleand lower levels, its importance keeps on diminishing.4. Design of Problem Solving SkillIt is the ability to see a problem and then also to workout a solution to it. This skill is required at all levels becauseevery manager without reference to this level makes decision strategic, or routine ones. However, its significancelies more at higher levels.Management has a dynamic nature. It means that management is an organizing and unceasing element orconcept. Management does not occur by rigid formula or fixed pattern. It is ever-present reality of organizationallife. Management does not carry out the work himself, but the managers get the work done through other peopleby pioneering, leading, motivating and controlling their activities, efforts and Behavior. The following importantcharacteristics of features of management clearly indicate toward its nature.1. Management is a Complex and Continuous Social ProcessManagement deals with human phenomenon about which too little is known. The structure and Behavior of groups of people are very complex. It is a process because its comprises a series of actions that lead toachievement of objectives. It is a social process because these actions are primarily concerned with relationsbetween people. It is a continuous process because new problems crop up as the old ones are solved.2. Management is an Independent SkillManagement has emerged as an essential, a distinct and a leading independent institution, which is a central eventin the social history. It is a new basic and dominant institution or social group.3. Management is a ScienceScience is a systemized knowledge about a phenomenon ascertained by observation and experiment. It meansthat under science, general truths are discovered and critically tested, and then underlying principles areestablished. As science, management has developed and provides a body of principles, theories, laws, techniquesand practices, which are capable of universal application. It has developed certain generalizations, which areapplicable to any group activity.Management is growing as science due to the following reasons:
a) Quantitative Tools
under the name and style of Operations Research have been introduced in the field of managerial decision-making.

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