An Experimental All-Band NondirectionalTransmitting Antenna
Some Possibilities Offered by the Tilted Folded Dipole
BY G. L. COUNTRYMAN, * W1RBK, W3HH
EW improvements in antennas for the lower-frequency bands have been forthcoming forseveral years. The arrangement to be dis-
cussed is not entirely original with the autorbut was based on some Navy antenna studies.Initial tests indicate that it may provide anacceptable solution to amateur multibandoperation.Briefly, it is an aperiodic system that will giveuniform output over a frequency of approxi-mately a 5-to-1 ratio with nondirectional char-acteristics and without critical adjustment. Infact, the only adjustment is to couple the finaltank to a 600-ohm line.The practical experiments conducted by theauthor are incomplete, but it is hoped that thepublication of the data contained herein willencourage experimenting by other amateurs.
General diagram of the terminated folded dipole. Dimensions for A and B are suggested in the text.
There are many questions unanswered: measuredvariation in standing-wave ratio over a givenfrequency range, loss in power attributable tothe resistance termination, experimentally-ob-tained radiation patterns, etc.Essentially, the system
shown in Fig. 1
is a nonresonant folded dipole. It is fed with a600-ohm line. This antenna, if horizontal, will bequite directional at right angles to its axis, withpronounced minima off the ends. As the antennais tilted with respect to ground, this pattern grad-ually changes until at an angle of 30 degrees itbecomes nondirectional for all practical purposes.Translated into terms of amateur constructionthis means that only one mast is required, to-gether with a short pole six feet or so in height
• Those hams who are experimentallyinclined will no doubt be interested inthe possibilities that this antenna sys-tem suggests. Practical tests by theauthor have show that the single an-tenna may be operated over a frequencyrange as great as 5 to 1 with a relativelysmall change in the standing-wave ratioon the line and that the pattern is essen-tially nondirectional.
supporting the low end. There seems to be nomarked advantage in an increase in over-allheight of the antenna. On the contrary, reportsfrom a distance indicate that signals are definitelybetter with one end of the antenna only six feetfrom the ground, perhaps because of a resultinglower angle of radiation.Because complications are introduced by theresistance termination, it is difficult to make anadequate analysis or evaluation of a terminatedfolded dipole by conventional methods. It be-comes necessary to measure performance experi-mentally.One of the Navy laboratories has investigatedthe performance of this type of antenna and hasreported unfavorably upon it. However, thelaboratory study was based upon a verticalmonopole erected over a metallic ground plane,using conventional measuring instruments, andthe characteristics obtained were applied mathe-matically to arrive at theoretical characteristicsfor the resistance-terminated folded dipole.Operational tests were not made by this labora-tory and their theoretical findings are not borneout by the limited practical tests conducted bythe author.It is of interest to note that the standing-waveratios estimated by the laboratory for variousfrequencies from 4 to 22 Mc. ranged from aminimum of 1.4 to a maximum of 2.6, with anaverage close to 1.7. These ratios compare favor-ably with average s.w.r.s found in amateurinstallations. It should be remembered that thesestanding-wave ratios were not measured but wherearrived at by calculation.
* Comdr.. USN: Electronics Officer, Boston Naval Ship- yard, Boston, Mass.
QST for June 194954
Fig. 1 gives a general idea of the system withthe important dimensions indicated except for