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Sobre La Inteligencia Cooperativa Del Physarum Polycephalum

Sobre La Inteligencia Cooperativa Del Physarum Polycephalum

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Published by idsborg1788
Can slime mold have inteligence? this article discuses about this.
Can slime mold have inteligence? this article discuses about this.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: idsborg1788 on Nov 16, 2010
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05/04/2014

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Sobre la inteligencia cooperativa del
Physarum polycephalum
.
Rafael Aparicio Sánchez
1
*El estudio de animales sociales como las hormigas y las abejas así comode softwares emergentes o genéticos, capaces de resolver problemasen grupo que son incapaces de resolver individualmente, ha llevado alestablecimiento de análisis del nivel más básico de inteligencia a partirde elementos simples que se unen en un aglomerado de organismos ogrupos complejos. Uno de los estudios es el de la resolución dellaberinto con un moho denominado
Physarum polycephalum
, que sesupone que muestra un comportamiento inteligente elemental.
Introducción
En el abstracto del artículo de Nakagaki (Nagakaki, 2000) se indica que el
Physarum
es capazde mostrar una inteligencia primitiva:The plasmodium of the slime mould
Physarum polycephalum
is a large amoeba-like cell consisting of a dendritic network of tube-like structures (pseudopodia). Itchanges its shape as it crawls over a plain agar gel and, if food is placed at twodifferent points, it will put out pseudopodia that connect the two food sources.Here we show that this simple organism has
the ability to find the minimum-length solution
between two points in a labyrinth (Segundo remarcado nuestro).En su fase de crecimiento, es como una gran ameba que se dispersa profusamente,desarrollándose y comiendo todo lo que encuentra a su paso. Consume bacterias y materiaorgánica en descomposición. En el estadio plasmodio, es una masa de color amarillo brillanteque puede crecer más de un pié. Si las condiciones cambian, como por ejemplo si el suelo seseca o comienza a escasear la comida, comienza a contraerse y a formar esporangios, queproducen esporas que pueden ser enviadas por medio del aire a nuevas zonas donde elorganismo puede volver a crecer. Uno de los casos curiosos ocurre cuando las condiciones soncomplicadas para que pueda crecer pero no tan severas como para que tenga que formaresporas. Entonces se mantiene en una especie de estado de hibernación seca, llamadaesclerocio, en el que puede revivir si se humedece.Este tipo de hongos gelatinosos, como el
 physarum polycephalum
son parte del reino de losProtoctistas, uno de los menos estudiados de los cinco reinos de vida (salvo lo extensosestudios realizados durante toda su vida John Tyler Bonner, biólogo evolutivo del desarrollo
1
Ingeniero Técnico Industrial UPV. MA en Estudios Avanzados en Filosofía por la USAL.
 
Rafael Aparicio Sánchez Sobre la inteligencia emergente del Physarum polycephalum.2estadounidense, experto en el ciclo vital de los
Myxomycota
). Los demás seres vivos comoanimales, pantas, hongos y bacterias. Lo que llamó la atención del Dr. Nagakaki y sus colegasera que aparentaba mostrar una inteligencia primitiva. En los estudios del citado Dr., el hongosería capaz de “encontrar el camino más corto en un laberinto”. Para ello se rellena todo ellaberinto con el hongo, y se coloca una fuente de alimento a la entrada y a la salida,obteniéndose el camino más corto.El procedimiento llevado a cabo por Nakagaki indica que (Op. Cit):We took a growing tip of an appropriate size from a large plasmodium in a 25 X 35cm culture trough and divided it into small pieces. We then positioned these in amaze created by cutting a plastic film and placing it on an agar surface. Theplasmodial pieces spread and coalesced to form a single organism that filled themaze, avoiding the dry surface of the plastic film. At the start and end points of the maze, we placed 0.5- x 1- x 2-cm agar blocks containing nutrient (0.1 mg/g of ground oat flakes). There were four possible routes (α1, α2, β1, β2) between thestart and endpoints.Continuando su explicación:"The plasmodium pseudopodia reaching dead ends in the labyrinth shrank [Figure2.b., above], resulting in the formation of a single thick pseudopodium spanningthe minimum length between the nutrient-containing agar blocks [Figure 2.c.,above]. The exact position and length of the pseudopodium was different in eachexperiment, but the path through α2—which was about 22% shorter than thatthrough α1—was always selected [Figure 2.d., above]. About the same number of tubes formed through β1 and β2 as the difference (about 2%) in their path lengthsis lost in the meandering of the tube trajectory and is within experimental error".Y en sus conclusiones indica que:The plasmodium of the slime mould
Physarum polycephalum
is a large amoeba-like cell consisting of a dendritic network of tube-like structures (pseudopodia). Itchanges its shape as it crawls over a plain agar gel and, if food is placed at twodifferent points, it will put out pseudopodia that connect the two food sources.
Here we show that this simple organism has the ability to find the minimum-length solution between two points in a labyrinth.
(Segundo remarcado nuestro).El modelo más sencillo sobre cómo actúa este moho en su agregación es el propuesto porKeller y Segel (Keller, 1970), que no tienen en cuenta que el organismo tenga ningunahabilidad cognitiva:
 
Rafael Aparicio Sánchez Sobre la inteligencia emergente del Physarum polycephalum.3The chemotactic interaction of amoebae, as mediated by acrasin, is evidenced in avariety of ways, the most dramatic of which is aggregation. In this paper wepresent a mathematical formulation of the general interaction, and provide adetailed analysis of the aggregation process. By analogy with many problems inthe physical world, aggregation is viewed as a breakdown of stability caused byintrinsic changes in the basic parameters which characterize the system. Thispoint of view provides a description of aggregation which does not require thatany cells be distinguished, but rather assumes a homogeneous population.La palabra clave para el “comportamiento” es “aggretation”. El organismo muestra unahabilidad para unirse o disolverse en función del estadio del ciclo vital de las células, y lapresencia de alimento o las condiciones ambientales propicias o desfavorables:In the morphogenetic development of many species of cellular slime mold(Acrasiales) some interesting effects of long-range intercellular interaction can beobserved. The interaction may be of a repulsive or attractive nature, dependingon the stage of the cells’ life cycle. Immediately following germination, the cellsdisperse as if acting under a mutual repulsion. When a source of food (bacteria) ispresent, the cells move toward it with a high positive chemotactic index. Afterexhausting their food supply, the amoebae first tend to distribute themselvesuniformly over the space available to them, but later they begin to aggregate in anumber of “collecting points” or centers. At each center a slug forms, migratesand eventually forms a multicellular fruiting body.Una búsqueda de artículos que citan al de Nakagaki, hablan de inteligencia de las plantas o lasamebas, de utilización de este organismo para la computación, etc. ¿Qué hace realmente elmoho? Es una estructura disipativa, autoorganizada con unas características que también seencuentran en otros grupos no pertenecientes al reino de la vida (Weber, 2008), pero¿inteligente?:Seeing the cell as a thermodynamic ‘dissipative structure’ was not to beconsidered as reducing the cell to physics, as Bernal pointed out, rather a richerphysics of what Warren Weaver called “organized complexity” (in contrast tosimple order or “disorganized complexity”) was being deployed (Weaver 1948).The development of this “new” physics of open systems and the dissipativestructures that arise in them was the fulfillment of the development thatSchrödinger foresaw (Rosen 2000). Dissipative structures in physical and chemicalsystems are phenomena that are explained by nonequilibrium thermodynamics

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