of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form.Other communication channels such astelegraphyfit into this category, whereby signalstravel from person to person by an alternative means. These signals can in themselves berepresentative of words, objects or merely be state projections. Trials have shown thathumans can communicate directly in this way
without body language, voice tonality or words.
Categories and Features
G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, toneof voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
This is the type of communication that takes place through creativeexpressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.
This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signalflags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.
. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego- building symbols.
The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbalmessage. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.
People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side,or even back-to-back. For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side whilecompetitors frequently face one another.
Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing. These are not theelements of posture that convey messages. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legscrossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degreeof relaxation in the communication exchange.
. Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting onthe back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.