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Comparison of memory management of windows with LINUX

Comparison of memory management of windows with LINUX

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Published by Eoghán Mác
TERM PAPER OF OPERATING SYSTEM CSE-316 TOPIC:-COMPARISON OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT OF WINDOWS WITH LINUX

SUBMITTED TO: LECT.

SUBMITTED BY:-

Introduction
We will be comparing the Memory Management (MM) Sub-Systems of these operating systems - Linux 2.4 and Windows. Windows was chosen since it is a very popular operating system for use as a desktop especially with beginners, and has now evolved into a mature operating system. Linux was chosen because it is growing more and more popular by the day,
TERM PAPER OF OPERATING SYSTEM CSE-316 TOPIC:-COMPARISON OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT OF WINDOWS WITH LINUX

SUBMITTED TO: LECT.

SUBMITTED BY:-

Introduction
We will be comparing the Memory Management (MM) Sub-Systems of these operating systems - Linux 2.4 and Windows. Windows was chosen since it is a very popular operating system for use as a desktop especially with beginners, and has now evolved into a mature operating system. Linux was chosen because it is growing more and more popular by the day,

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Published by: Eoghán Mác on Nov 16, 2010
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TERM PAPER OF OPERATING SYSTEMCSE-316TOPIC:-COMPARISON OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT OFWINDOWS WITH LINUXSUBMITTED TO: - SUBMITTED BY:-LECT.
 
Introduction
We will be comparing the Memory Management (MM) Sub-Systems of theseoperating systems - Linux 2.4 and Windows. Windows was chosen since it is avery popular operating system for use as a desktop especially with beginners, andhas now evolved into a mature operating system. Linux was chosen because it isgrowing more and more popular by the day, and seems to have an important placein the future.
MEMORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The Memory Management System is one of the important core parts of anoperating system. Its basic function is to manage the memory hierarchy of RAMand hard disks available on a machine. Its important tasks include allocation anddeallocation of memory to processes taking care of logistics, and implementationof Virtual Memory by utilizing hard disk as extra RAM. The Memory systemshould be optimized as far as possible, since its performance greatly affects theoverall performance and speed of the system.
VIRTUAL MEMORY
An important concept in the context of MM Systems is Virtual Memory. Back inthe early days of computing, researchers sensed the ever growing memoryrequirements of application programs, so the idea of Virtual Memory was born.The idea is to provide an application program the illusion of the presence of a verylarge amount of memory available for its use. The kernel will provide such afacility by making use of secondary storage - the hard disk - to fulfill the extraspace requirements.For the virtual memory system to work, we require some mapping function whichwill perform address translation, converting the virtual address to the physicaladdress. The virtual address is the address which the application uses to refer to amemory location, and the physical address is the actual memory location passedout to the local memory bus. This function is generally one of Paging, or Segmentation, or both - depending on the kernel, processor architecture and itsstate.
 
Paging
In Paging, the address space (both virtual and real) is divided into fixed-sized pages. The pages can be individually manipulated and placed at different places inthe physical memory and the hard disk. The address translation is actually done bythe Memory Management Unit (MMU) of the processor by the use of a Page.Which virtual memory page currently occupies which physical page. The MMUconverts the virtual memory address to a physical address which consists of a pageframe number and an offset within that page. Protection can be applied on a page by page basis.Since the virtual address space is huge compared to the physical memory, we mustuse the hard disk to store pages which cannot be stored in the physical memory.Associated with each virtual page in the page table is a bit to denote whether the page is present in the physical memory or not. If the page is not present in the physical memory, the hardware generates a page fault exception. This exception ishandled in software, which places the required page back from the hard disk to the physical memory, or if it is invalid, generates an error. Coffman and Denningcharacterize paging systems by three important policies:1. When the system loads pages into memory – the fetch policy.2. Where the system places pages into memory - the placement policy3. How the system selects pages to be removed from main memory when pages areunavailable for a placement request - the page replacement policy.The placement policy is of importance only for optimizing certain behavior. So, practically, the behavior of a paging system is dependent only on the fetch and placement policy. In most modern systems, for the fetch policy a demand pagingsystem is used in which the system brings a page to memory only when it isrequired, however sometimes pre-paging certain pages that are expected to berequired. With regard to the page replacement policy, many algorithms have beendeveloped over the years. An account can be found in .Comparisons of  performance of page replacement algorithms can be found in many papers.
Comparison
 Now we shall concentrate on the MM systems of Windows and LinuxThe Windows was developed in a long series of operating systems since MSDOS.

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