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Biodegradable Polymers

Biodegradable Polymers

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Published by Eoghán Mác
TERM PAPER OF CHEMISTRY
Topic-Biodegradable Polymers

Submitted by: Lect.Jyoti Avinash Manhas Roll.no- RE2801B46

Submitted to:

Reg.no- 10809450 Course- B Tech-M.Tech( IT)

Biodegradable polymer
INTRODUCTION
Biodegradable polymers are designed to degrade upon disposal by the action of living organisms. Extraordinary progress has been made in the development of practical processes and products from polymers such as starch, cellulose, and lactic acid. The need to create alternative biodegradable
TERM PAPER OF CHEMISTRY
Topic-Biodegradable Polymers

Submitted by: Lect.Jyoti Avinash Manhas Roll.no- RE2801B46

Submitted to:

Reg.no- 10809450 Course- B Tech-M.Tech( IT)

Biodegradable polymer
INTRODUCTION
Biodegradable polymers are designed to degrade upon disposal by the action of living organisms. Extraordinary progress has been made in the development of practical processes and products from polymers such as starch, cellulose, and lactic acid. The need to create alternative biodegradable

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Published by: Eoghán Mác on Nov 16, 2010
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12/13/2010

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TERM PAPEROFCHEMISTRY 
Topic-BiodegradablePolymers
 
 Submitted by:
 
 Submitted to: Lect.Jyoti 
 
 Avinash Manhas Roll.no- RE2801B46 
 
 Reg.no- 10809450Course- B Tech-M.Tech( IT)
 Biodegradable polymer 
 INTRODUCTION 
Biodegradable polymers are designed to degrade upon disposal by the action of livingorganisms. Extraordinary progress has been made in the development of practical processes and products from polymers such as starch, cellulose, and lactic acid. The needto create alternative biodegradable water-soluble polymers for down-the-drain productssuch as detergents and cosmetics has taken on increasing importance. Consumers have,however, thus far attached little or no added value to the property of biodegradability,forcing industry to compete head-to-head on a costperformance basis with existingfamiliar products. In addition, no suitable infrastructure for the disposal of biodegradablematerials exists as yet.Conventional polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene persist for many yearsafter disposal. Built for the long haul, these polymers seem inappropriate for applicationsin which plastics are used for short time periods and then disposed. Furthermore, plasticsare often soiled by food and other biological substances, making physical recyclingof these materials impractical and generally undesirable. In contrast, biodegradable polymers (BPs) disposed in bioactive environments degrade by the enzymatic action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae. Their polymer chains may also be broken down by nonenzymatic processes such as chemical hydrolysis. Biodegradable polymers are often derived from plant processing of atmospheric CO2. Biodegradationconverts them to CO2, CH4, water, biomass, humic matter, and other natural substances.A variety of natural, synthetic, and biosynthetic polymers are bio and environmentallydegradable. A polymer based on a C-C backbone tends to resist degradation, whereasheteroatom-containing polymer backbones confer biodegradability. Biodegradability can,therefore, be engineered into polymers by the judicious addition of chemical linkagessuch as anhydride, ester, or amide bonds, among others. The usual mechanism for degradation is by hydrolysis or enzymatic cleavage of the labile heteroatom bonds,resulting in a scission of the polymer backbone. Macroorganisms can eat and, sometimes,digest polymers, and also initiate a mechanical, chemical, or enzymatic aging.
1
Biodegradable polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are researched extensivelyfor biomedical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and packaging applications.
2
In order to beused in medical devices and controlled-drug-release applications, the biodegradable polymer must be biocompatible and meet other criteria to be qualified as biomaterial- processable, sterilizable, and capable of controlled stability or degradation in response to biological conditions.
3
The chemical nature of the degradation products, rather than of the polymer itself, often critically influences biocompatibility. Poly(esters) based on
 
 polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and their copolymershave been extensively employed as biomaterials. Degradation of these materials yieldsthe corresponding hydroxy acids, making them safe for 
in vivo
use.Other bio- and environmentally degradable polymers include poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s of the PHB-PHV class, additional poly(ester)s, and natural polymers, particularly, modified poly(saccharide)s, e.g., starch, cellulose, and chitosan. Please refer to the NaturalPolymerssection for a list of available poly(saccharides).Many opportunities exist for the application of synthetic biodegradable polymers in the biomedical area particularly in the fields of tissue engineering and controlled drugdelivery. Degradation is important in biomedicine for many reasons. Degradation of the polymeric implant means surgical intervention may not required for removal at the end of its functional life, eliminating the need for a second surgery. In tissue engineering, biodegradable polymers can be designed such to approximate tissues, providing a polymer scaffold that can withstand mechanical stresses, provide a suitable surface for cell attachment and growth, and degrade at a rate that allows the load to be transferred tothe new tissue. In the field of controlled drug delivery, biodegradable polymers offer tremendous potential either as a drug delivery system alone or in conjunction tofunctioning as a medical device.In the development of applications of biodegradable polymers, the chemistry of some polymers including synthesis and degradation is reviewed below. A description of how properties can be controlled by proper synthetic controls such as copolymer composition,special requirements for processing and handling, and some of the commercial devices based on these materials are discussed.A variety of natural, synthetic, and biosynthetic polymers are bio and environmentallydegradable. A polymer based on a C-C backbone tends to resist degradation, whereasheteroatom-containing polymer backbones confer biodegradability. Biodegradability can,therefore, be engineered into polymers by the judicious addition of chemical linkagessuch as anhydride, ester, or amide bonds, among others. The usual mechanism for degradation is by hydrolysis or enzymatic cleavage of the labile heteroatom bonds,resulting in a scission of the polymer backbone. Macroorganisms can eat and, sometimes,digest polymers, and also initiate a mechanical, chemical, or enzymatic aging.1Biodegradable polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are researched extensivelyfor biomedical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and packaging applications.2 In order to beused in medical devices and controlled-drug-release applications, the biodegradable polymer must be biocompatible and meet other criteria to be qualified as biomaterial- processable, sterilizable, and capable of controlled stability or degradation in response to biological conditions.3 The chemical nature of the degradation products, rather than of the polymer itself, often critically influences biocompatibility. Poly(esters) based on polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and their copolymershave been extensively employed as biomaterials.4,5 Degradation of these materials yieldsthe corresponding hydroxy acids, making them safe for in vivo use.

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