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Published by Alejandro Galicia

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Published by: Alejandro Galicia on Nov 16, 2010
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Crime Wars
Gangs, Cartels and U.S. National Security 
By Bob Killebrew and Jennifer Bernal
Cover Image
A police ocer runs ater an attack on police patrol trucks that killed two ocers in theborder city o Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, July 15, 2010. The car bomb would mark an unprec-edented escalation o Mexico’s drug war and confrm long-standing ears that the cartelsare turning to explosives in their fght against security orces.(ASSOCIATED PRESS)
Author’s Preface
 This study began when riends o mine in Tidewater and Northern Virginia casually remarked how they had adapted theirlives to the presence o criminal gangs.What was happening that gangs could inuence so much, rom sleepy Surry County, Virginia, to Northeast Washington?Walking the question back, rom police departments to drug enorcement agents and double-secure military intelligencecenters, led to this study. It has not been an easy intellectual journey or someone trained to see insurgencies through adierent lens. This study has at least two limitations. First, it connes itsel to events in the Western Hemisphere. Many people whoseopinions I respect have pointed out to me that drug trafcking organizations and gangs are a global challenge. Regionalcartels, however, are the near threat: they are largely grown in the hemisphere and they walk across the U.S. border andoperate in this country. So or better or worse, this is about criminal insurgency in the Western Hemisphere. Secondly, thisstudy is, as my mountaineer ancestors would have said, “a mile wide and an inch deep.” It covers a lot o ground. Each aceto the criminal economy, the subject o Venezuelan and Iranian penetration, Colombia’s struggles, each o the cartels andMexico’s valiant ght to be a ree nation – all deserve ar more treatment than I could give here.I am certain, though, o the major conclusion – that the United States is under attack, domestically and aeld, by a net-worked criminal insurgency that must be deeated. My certainty comes in part by the evidence and in part rom talking tooperators who have been in the eld and see the acts rsthand.
At the end o every study, an author is deeply in debt to those who have propped him up and saved him rom error. Firstplace must go to my wie, Pixie, who has suered through reading ater reading as holidays go by. People who know botho us agree that I married up, and I have thought so too, or over 40 years. Thanks again, Honey.Jennier Bernal-García, my research assistant, walked into this project ater graduation rom Stanord; by now she’s ahardened researcher and author in her own right. Were it not or Jennier, this paper would be hal the size and much lessinteresting.At CNAS, Kristin Lord, Liz Fontaine, Patrick Cronin, Brian Burton, Lieutenant General David Barno USA (Ret.), David Asherand Ross Brown, among others, provided invaluable input to shape the report. Many others helped us through this project,and their own expertise and proessionalism was a constant inspiration. Some are: Nelson Arriaga, Jimmy Bacon, NormanBailey, Alvaro Balcazar, Scott Brady, Michael Braun, Robert Bunker, Gary Chicko, Patricia Cortés, Tom Donnelly, WilliamDunn, Vicente Echandía, Antulio Echevarría, Lani Elliott, Janice Elmore, Douglas Farah, Vanda Felbab-Braun, Ben Fitzgerald,Brian Fonseca, Jim Fox, Glenn Harned, Rich Higgins, Adam Isacson, Chris Lawson, María Victoria Llorente, Andrew Lomax,David Maxwell, Tony Moreno, Moisés Naím, Henry Norris, Gen. Freddy Padilla, Andres Peñate, Celina Realuyo, Jose Soto,John Stolar, Kevin Stringer, Jim Tanner, and Jim Trusty. We would like to especially thank the Combating Terrorism TechnicalSupport Ofce’s Irregular Warare Support Program or their sponsorship o this report.Their help has been invaluable, but o course I alone am responsible or the acts and conclusions contained in this report. 
Bob Killebrew 
Cim W
Gangs, Cartels and U.S. National Security 
By Bob Killebrew an Jennier Bernal
Table o ConTenTs
Chapter I: Introuction 3 Chapter II: The Geography o Organize Crime in the Western HemisphereChapter III: Cartels an Gangs in the Unite States 35Chapter IV: A U.S. Strategy to Counter the Cartels 47Chapter V: Conclusion 6 Appenix: Major Transnational Criminal Trens 65

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