1992; Slim, 1969). Although some have noted that customer-relatedviolenceisanimportantriskfactorassociatedwithstreet-levelprostitution(Barnard,1993;Miller,1993;Miller&Schwartz,1995;NationalCenterforMissing&ExploitedChildren,1992;SanFrancisco Task Force, 1996; Silbert & Pines, 1982), according toresearch literature pimp-related violence remains a viable forcethat negatively affects some women’s health and well-being.Those women who continue to involve themselves with pimpscanexpecttobesubjectedtocontrollingpracticesandsuffervio-lent treatment that has been described as frequent, pervasive,and brutal (Giobbe, 1993; Williamson, 2000). Sixty-six of the 200women involved in the Silbert and Pines study (1982) reported beingabusedbypimps.Similarreportsofwomenbeingassaulted bytheirpimpshavebeenreportedbyBarry(1995),Giobbe(1993), Johnson (1992), and Williamson (2000).Runaways without adequate food, clothing, shelter, or other basic needs are particularly vulnerable to pimp influence(Flowers, 2001; Janus, & Burgess, 1986; Johnson, 1992;McCormack,Janus,&Burgess,1986;NationalCenterforMissing&ExploitedYouth,1992).However,adultwomenbecomeinvolvedwith pimps for a variety of reasons, ranging from pursuing emo-tional needs to meeting financial needs (Barry, 1995; Holsopple,1998; Silbert & Pines, 1982).
Our method used for understanding the traditional pimp-prostitutephenomenonwasthroughqualitativeresearch,specifi-cally, the Glaserian approach to grounded theory methodology(see Glaser, 1978).Information regarding the traditional pimp-prostitute phe-nomenon was obtained from a larger study that included bothindependent and pimp-controlled women. Criteria for inclusionin the study were women 18 years of age an older who were nolonger involved in prostitution activities. Participants wereselectedthroughaprocessofpurposive,orsnowball,samplingbywordofmouth.Intotal,21formerstreetprostitutesfromtheMid-westwereinterviewed.Respondentsrangedinagefrom18to35.Of the total sample, 13 were Appalachian White women, 7 wereAfrican American women, and 1 was a Hispanic woman. The
1076 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN / September 2002