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AP Biology Chapter 16 Outline

AP Biology Chapter 16 Outline

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Published by CJ Cronis

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Published by: CJ Cronis on Nov 17, 2010
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09/22/2013

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y
 
1953: James Watson and Francis Crick create double helical model for DNA
y
 
After Morgan showed genes are located on chromosomes, it sparked the debate of DNA and protein being the candidates for the genetic material
y
 
Much was known about proteins
o
 
H
ad great heterogeneity and specificity of function
 
E
ssential for the hereditary material
y
 
L
ittle was known about nucleic acids
o
 
T
heir chemical and physical properties seemed to uniform to account for themultitude of inherited traits
y
 
Frederick Griffith: 1928 British Medical Officer
o
 
S
tudied streptococcus pneumoniae- pneumonia causing bacteria
o
 
H
ad two strains- a pathogenic and a harmless
o
 
When he killed the pathogenic strain with heat and mixed with the harmlessstrain , some cells transformed into pathogenic cells
 
Transformation:
a change in genotype and phenotype due toassimilation of external DNA by a cell
y
 
Oswald Avery: 1944 American Bacteriologist 
o
 
Built on Griffiths work and proved that DNA was the responsible agent fortransformation
o
 
Colleagues: Maclyn McCarty and Colin Mac
L
eod
o
 
E
xperiment:
S
eparate each part of the bacteria and test one by one
o
 
S
kepticism arose because not much was known about DNA
y
 
V
iruses provided additional evidence for DNA as the genetic material
o
 
T
o reproduce, viruses must infect and take over a cells metabolic machinery
o
 
B
acteriophages (phages):
V
iruses that infect bacteria
y
 
1952: Alfred
H
ershey and Martha Chase
o
 
S
howed that DNA was the genetic material of a phage was known as
T
2
 
T
2 was all DNA and a little protein
 
P
roved that DNA was the genetic material by growing
T
2 with
E.
Coli
 
y
 
T
wo sets of petri dishes were prepped- one with
S
ulfure-35 tostain the protein and one with
P
hosphorous-32 to stain DNA
y
 
After letting the
T
2 and
E.
Coli mingle, they noticed that theinside of the
E.
Coli cells were blue- showing that DNA enteredthe cell
y
 
E
rwin Chargraff: Biochemist 
o
 
Analyzed the base composition of the DNA from multiple euakryotes
 
Noticed that all the four bases (A, C,
T
, G) were present in eukaryotes,but in characteristic ratios that varied from eukaryote to eukaryote
 
C
hargraffs Rule:
T
he amount of Adenine approximately equaled theamount of 
T
hymine and the amount of Guanine approximatelyequaled the amount of Cytosine
y
 
Once biologists accepted DNA as the genetic material, they needed to know itsstructure
o
 
Watson and Crick used X-ray crystallography pictures from RosalindFranklin
o
 
Watson was familiar with the types of patterns that helical moleculesproduce in X- ray crystallographies
 
T
he picture told Watson that the structure was helical and enabledhim to deduce the width of the helix and the spacing of thenitrogenous bases along it 
y
 
T
he width showed that the helix was two stranded
o
 
T
he crystallography showed that the helix makes one full turn every 3
.
4nanometer (nm)
 
Bases are stacked 0
.
34 nm apart 
y
 
10 layers of base pairs in each turn on the helix
o
 
Adenine pairs with
T
hymine
o
 
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
 
P
urine +
P
urine= too wide
 
P
yrimadine +
P
yrimadine= too narrow
 
 
P
urine +
P
yrimadine= width consistent with X-ray data
y
 
T
he Watson- Crick model proved Chargraffs rule
y
 
When a cell copies a DNA molecule, each strand serves as a blueprint, demandingcertain nucleotides to make a complementary strand
.
 
o
 
S
emiconservative Model:
T
ype of DNA replication in which the replicateddouble helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, andone newly made strand
y
 
H
umans have about 6 billion base pairs per cell
o
 
Only takes a few hours to copy all this DNA
o
 
Only a few errors per 1 billion nucleotides
y
 
More than a dozen enzymes and proteins participate in DNA replication
y
 
DNA replication starts at special sites
o
 
O
rigins of replication:
special sites on DNA where replication starts
o
 
P
roteins attach to DNA and begin to unzip the DNA into two strands
o
 
Replication occurs from both top to bottom and bottom to topsimultaneously
o
 
DNA
Polymerases:
enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA strands
o
 
Rate of replication is 500 million nucleotides per second
 
H
uman replication occurs at 50 million nuecleotides per second
o
 
Nucleoside triphosphates serve as substrates for DNA
P
olymerase
y
 
T
he two DNA sugar- phosphate backbones run anti-parallel to eachother (parallelbut in opposite directions)
P
icture showing the antiparallelstructure of the DNA Double
H
elix
S
tructure
T
he numbers 3 and 5 refer to thecarbons in the the backbone
.
 

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