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Achievement Motivation Among University Managers and Institutional Effectiveness in Selected Nigerian Universities by Steve U. Bassey & Roseleen J. Akpan

Achievement Motivation Among University Managers and Institutional Effectiveness in Selected Nigerian Universities by Steve U. Bassey & Roseleen J. Akpan

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Published by Kolapo
Abstract
The study investigated the relationship between achievement motivation among University managers and institutional effectiveness in terms of teaching and learning, community-school partnership, professional leadership, staff and students’ involvement and high intellectual expectations in selected Nigerian Universities. The population of study was made up of all teaching and non-teaching staff of two Universities from the rank of administrative officer upwards; while sample consisted of 240 respondents randomly selected from administrative and teaching staff. A 35-item questionnaire in two parts constructed by the researchers was used to gather data while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings revealed significant relationships between achievement motivation and institutional effectiveness in teaching and learning (r = 0.72), community-school partnership (r = 0.66), professional leadership (r = 0.64), staff and students’ involvement (r = 0.56), and high intellectual expectations (r = 0.49). On the basis of the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that job enrichment should be applied in the job description of University managers, achievement-motivation workshops should be arranged for department heads; while National Universities Commission should prepare effectiveness (i.e. productivity) guidelines for the University system.
Abstract
The study investigated the relationship between achievement motivation among University managers and institutional effectiveness in terms of teaching and learning, community-school partnership, professional leadership, staff and students’ involvement and high intellectual expectations in selected Nigerian Universities. The population of study was made up of all teaching and non-teaching staff of two Universities from the rank of administrative officer upwards; while sample consisted of 240 respondents randomly selected from administrative and teaching staff. A 35-item questionnaire in two parts constructed by the researchers was used to gather data while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings revealed significant relationships between achievement motivation and institutional effectiveness in teaching and learning (r = 0.72), community-school partnership (r = 0.66), professional leadership (r = 0.64), staff and students’ involvement (r = 0.56), and high intellectual expectations (r = 0.49). On the basis of the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that job enrichment should be applied in the job description of University managers, achievement-motivation workshops should be arranged for department heads; while National Universities Commission should prepare effectiveness (i.e. productivity) guidelines for the University system.

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Published by: Kolapo on Nov 18, 2010
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AA AchievementMotivationAmongUniversityManagersandInstitutionalEffectivenessinSelectedchievementMotivationAmongUniversityManagersandInstitutionalEffectivenessinSelectedchievementMotivationAmongUniversityManagersandInstitutionalEffectivenessinSelectedchievementMotivationAmongUniversityManagersandInstitutionalEffectivenessinSelectedNigerianUniversities. NigerianUniversitiesNigerianUniversities. NigerianUniversities.SteveU.BasseSteveU.BasseSteveU.BasseSteveU.Bassey
&
RR RoseleenJ.Akpan oseleenJ.AkpaoseleenJ.AkpaoseleenJ.Akpan
UniversityofUyo,AkwaIbomState,Nigeri
Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract 
ThestudyinvestigatedtherelationshipbetweenachievementmotivationamongUniversitymanagersandinstitutionaleffectivenessintermsofteachingandlearning,community-schoolpartnership,professionalleadership,staffandstudents’involvementandhighintellectualexpectationsinselectedNigerianUniversities.Thepopulationofstudywasmadeupofallteachingandnon-teachingstaffoftwoUniversitiesfromtherankofadministrativeofficerupwards;whilesampleconsistedof240respondentsrandomlyselectedfromadministrativeandteachingstaff.A35-itemquestionnaireintwopartsconstructedbytheresearcherswasusedtogatherdatawhilePearsonsProductMomentCorrelationanalysiswasemployedfordataanalysis.Findingsrevealedsignificantrelationshipsbetweenachievementmotivationandinstitutionaleffectivenessinteachingandlearning(r=0.72),community-schoolpartnership(r=0.66),professionalleadership(r=0.64),staffandstudents’involvement(r=0.56),andhighintellectualexpectations(r=0.49).Onthebasisofthefindingsandconclusion,itwasrecommendedthatjobenrichmentshouldbeappliedinthejobdescriptionofUniversitymanagers,achievement-motivationworkshopsshouldbearrangedfordepartmentheads;whileNationalUniversitiesCommissionshouldprepareeffectiveness(i.e.productivity)guidelinesfortheUniversitysystem.
Keywords Keywords Keywords Keywords 
:Achievementmotivation,institutionaleffectiveness,universitymanagers

 
SteveU.Bassey
&
RoseleenJ.Akpan
RHEA 
,vol.2.no.1,65-7
 66
IntroductioIntroductioIntroductioIntroductio
Universitymanagers,likeallothermanagersindifferentsectorsoftheeconomy,haveasetofrolestoperform,ifthepredeterminedobjectivesoftheuniversityshouldbeattained.Someoftheserolesare:preparationanddefendingofdepartmentalbudgets;attractingfinancialsupportstothedepartment;encouragingscholarlypublicationsandprofessionaljournalresearches(Idumange,2002);managementofhumanandmaterialresourcesofthedepartment;coachingandtrainingofstaff;andgivingofacademicandadministrativeleadershiptothedepartment(Bassey,2007).Itseemsthatthereisneedtosharpenthecompetenceandzealofthesemanagersthroughmotivation.Sincetheeffectivenessofuniversitymanagersismeasuredbytheircompetenceandtheextenttowhichthegoalsoftheirexaltedofficeareattained(Ogbodo,2002),itbecomesnecessarythattheyshouldbeappropriatelymotivated.John(1986,p.12)conceptualizesmotivationtobetheinternalforcethatarouses,regulates,andsustainsallthemoreimportantactionsoftheindividual.Thoughintangibleitdeterminestheintensity,qualityanddirectionofongoingbehaviour.TheneedtheoryofMcClelland(1985)proposesthattherearethreemajormotives(orneeds)inworksituations,namely:needforachievement,needforpower;andneedforaffiliation.Needforachievementisthedrivetoexcel,toachieveinrelationtoasetofstandards,andtostrivetosucceed;whileneedforpoweristheurgetomakeothersbehaveinawaythattheywouldnothavebehavedotherwise.Also,needforaffiliationisthedesireforfriendlyandcloseinterpersonalrelationshipatworkenvironments.Theday-to-dayroleperformanceofuniversitymanagerstowardsinstitutionaleffectivenessseemsinfluencedbyMcClellands’Model(1985)ofneedstheory.Theeffectiveuniversitymanagerappearstohaveahighlevelneedforachievementandmoderatelevelneedforbothpowerandaffiliation.
AchievementMotivatioAchievementMotivatioAchievementMotivatioAchievementMotivation
Achievementmotivationisanunconsciousconcernforachievingexcellenceinaccomplishmentsthroughonesindividualeffort(Cooper&Locke,2000).Individualshighinachievementmotivation(orneedforachievement)areknowntobegoodinsettingchallenginggoalsforthemselves;assumingpersonalresponsibilityforgoalaccomplishment;arehighlypersistentinthepursuitofgoals;takecalculatedriskstoachievegoalsbysettingmoderatelydifficultgoals;andactivelycollectanduseinformationforfeedbackpurposes(Johns,1996).Theytendtowardsthesebehavioursevenintheabsenceofexternalstimuliorincentives,andinthepresenceofachievement-arousingstimuli,theyexhibitthesebehavioursmorestrongly
 
AchievementMotivationAmongUniversityManagersandInstitutionalEffectivenessinSelectedNigerianUniversities.
RHEA 
,vol.2.no.1,65-7
 67
thandoindividualslowinachievementmotivation.Achievementmotivationistheoreticallypredictedtocontributetoeffectiveleadershipofsmalltask-orientedgroupsandeffectiveentrepreneurship.Peoplewhoarehighinneedforachievementareconcernedwithmakingbettertheirownperformanceandthatofothers.Theyareoftenconcernedwithinnovationandlong-termgoalinvolvement.Johns(1996,p.166)believestheydothesethingsbecausetheyareintrinsicallysatisfying.Achievementmotivationconceptcanbeeffectiveconvenientlyintheuniversitysystem,especiallyatthedepartmentallevelwherestaffandstudents’sizescouldbeclassifiedassmallandmedium-sized.Here,thepopularityandsuccessofaparticulardepartmentappearstodependonthewayandmannertheheadadministersthedepartmentandarticulateshisdreamswithhissubordinates.Sincealleffectiveleadersneedahighlevelofpowermotivation(McClelland,1985),universitymanagersnecessarilyrequireareasonablelevelofachievementandpowermotivationtosucceedinleadingsubordinatestowardsgoalattainment.
InstitutionalEffectivenesInstitutionalEffectivenesInstitutionalEffectivenesInstitutionalEffectiveness
Institutionaleffectivenessisvieweddifferentlyfromvariousperspectives.Itcouldbeperceivedfromtheangleofschoolinput,schooloutputvariables,teaching-learningprocess,environment-based,andfeedbackmechanism-baseddefinitions.Babalola(2003,p.305)defineseffectivenessastheextenttowhichsetgoalsandobjectivesofaninstitutionareaccomplishedinrelationtoquality,quantity,equityandinstructionalquality.Effectiveinstitutionsarefoundwherestudentsprogressfurtherthanmightbeexpectedfromconsiderationsoftheirinitialintake(Bassey,2006).Someindicesattributedtoeffectiveinstitutionsinclude:sharedvisionandgoals;emphasisonteachingandlearning;professionalleadership;all-roundhighexpectations;community-schoolpartnership,andaclimateofstaffandstudents’involvement(Reynolds,1996).Drever(1990,p.1)observesthatdifferentgroupshavedifferentviewsofinstitutionaleffectiveness.Forinstance,theexpectationsofparents,lecturers,management,NationalUniversitiesCommission(NUC),andthepublicwithreferencetoeffectivenessarediverseandtheyrequireidentificationandclarification.Itappearsthatindividualinstitutionsrequireself-evaluationonacontinualbasisinordertokeeppacewiththeeffectivenessdrive.ItisagainstthisbackgroundthatthisstudywasundertakentoverifyhowfarinstitutionaleffectivenessattheuniversitylevelisaffectedbytheachievementmotivationofuniversitymanagersinSouth-SouthNigeria.UniversityofUyoandAkwaIbomStateUniversityofTechnologywereselectedforinvestigation.

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