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Presidential Report on Ionizing Radition Human Scanning System 2003

Presidential Report on Ionizing Radition Human Scanning System 2003

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Published by: AxXiom on Nov 18, 2010
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11/07/2011

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Presidential Report on RadiationProtection Advice: Screening of Humans forSecurity Purposes Using Ionizing RadiationScanning Systems
A Report Prepared by the National Council onRadiation Protection and Measurements
To: DHHS/FDA/OFACS/DCASCContract Operations Branch5630 Fishers Lane, Room 2129Rockville, Maryland 20857From: Thomas S. Tenforde, PresidentNational Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400Bethesda, Maryland 20814
 
 2
Presidential Report onRadiation Protection Advice: Screening of Humans for Security PurposesUsing Ionizing Radiation Scanning SystemsPreface
...........................................................................................................................................2
 1. Summary
.....................................................................................................................................6
2. Introduction
..............................................................................................................................12 
2.1
Scope of FDA Request...........................................................................................................12
2.2
Scope of NCRP Advice...........................................................................................................13
2.3
Effective Dose........................................................................................................................14
3. Description of Scanners
.........................................................................................................16
3.1
Existing Scanners for Screening Humans............................................................................16
3.1.1
Backscatter Systems....................................................................................................16
3.1.2
Transmission Systems.................................................................................................19
3.2
Existing Cargo Scanners.......................................................................................................21
3.3
Possible Future Developments.............................................................................................24
3.4
Alternatives to Ionizing Radiation Scanning Systems.........................................................25
4. Scanning System Usage
..........................................................................................................27 
4.1
Present Uses..........................................................................................................................27
4.2
Proposed New Uses...............................................................................................................28
5. Summary of Ionizing Radiation Detriment
........................................................................29
5.1
Genetic (Hereditary) Risk.....................................................................................................29
5.2
Cancer Risks Attributable to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation..........................................29
5.2.1
Acute Low-dose Exposures...........................................................................................30
5.2.2
Protracted Low-dose Exposures...................................................................................31
5.2.3
Extrapolation of Risks to Lower Doses........................................................................31
 
 3
6. Summary of NCRP System of Radiation Protection
.......................................................35 
6.1
System of Dose Limitation....................................................................................................35
6.2
Negligible Individual Dose....................................................................................................38
6.3
Collective Dose............................................................................................................
38
 
6.4
Record Keeping ..........................................................................................................
39
 
7. Application of NCRP System of Dose Limitation to Scanners
......................................40 
7.1
Intentional Radiation Exposure of Humans for Security Purposes ...................................40
7.2
Record Keeping for Scanned Individuals .............................................................................43
7.3
Radiation Protection for Operators and Public Bystanders ...............................................44
7.4
Initial and Periodic Testing of Equipment ..........................................................................45
7.5
Inadvertent Radiation Exposure of Humans as a Result of Cargo Scanning ....................46
8. Training
....................................................................................................................................47
8.1
Training of Operators ...........................................................................................................47
8.2
Retraining for Operators ......................................................................................................49
9. Communication of Information Related to Scanner Safety 
..........................................50
10. Conclusions
............................................................................................................................51
Appendix A. Additional Background on Ionizing Radiation Detriment
.........................54
References
....................................................................................................................................59

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