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Four Wars: the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic

Four Wars: the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic

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Published by Steve B. Salonga
AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES. By Onofre D. Corpuz. Chapter 9: 1896-1903 Four Wars; the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic

The Four Wars • Economic Dislocation and Population Loss •  The Political Economy of the Filipino Republic
Four   wars   broke   out   in   the   archipelago   over   1896­1899.   The  Christian Filipino revolution against Spain bega
AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES. By Onofre D. Corpuz. Chapter 9: 1896-1903 Four Wars; the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic

The Four Wars • Economic Dislocation and Population Loss •  The Political Economy of the Filipino Republic
Four   wars   broke   out   in   the   archipelago   over   1896­1899.   The  Christian Filipino revolution against Spain bega

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Published by: Steve B. Salonga on Nov 18, 2010
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11/05/2012

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AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES
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Chapter 91896 - 1903Four Wars; the Political Economyof the Filipino Republic
The Four Wars • Economic Dislocation and Population Loss •The Political Economy of the Filipino Republic
Four wars broke out in the archipelago over 1896-1899. TheChristian Filipino revolution against Spain began in August 1896.President Emilio Aguinaldo formally declared victory in September1898; the Filipino Republic, the first in Asia, was inaugurated inJanuary 1899.The Spanish-American war was featured by an American navalvictory over the antiquated Spanish fleet on May 1, 1898 in ManilaBay. On this basis, the American President William McKinleyissued instructions on May 19, 1898 directing the militaryoccupation of the archipelago.The United States began the hostilities in the Christian Filipino- American War on February 4, 1899. The war dragged on until June1906.The fourth war was fought by the United States against theMuslims of Mindanao and Sulu from July 1899 to June 1912.We can summarize the economic and population loss from 1896 to1903 only for Luzon and the Visayas. The setback to agriculturewas concentrated and prolonged in the rice sector, with rice importsof P129,215,500 over 1901-1910. A survey of the approach of theFilipino Republic to political economy concludes the chapter.
 
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 Four Wars; the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic 1
 
AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES
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The Four Wars
The principal action that began the revolution at the end of August 1896was an attack on Manila by urban irregulars who were routed by the regime'sforces. The immediate shift of hostilities to the nearby Tagalog provincesgave the revolution its essential nature. The fighting men wereoverwhelmingly rural workers, small farmers and hacienda tenants whofought under the pueblo upper class, their natural leaders.During its initial phase (1896-1897) the revolution was most active in theprovinces around Manila. Cavite won its liberation as early as October 1896.The fighting was also hard in Batangas, Laguna, Morong, Bulacan, NuevaEcija, Tayabas, and Bataan, with the rebels organizing in Pampanga andTarlac.To the pueblo elites, many of whom were educated in Manila, politicalaspirations were clear. To the fighting men, the immediate issue waseconomic and agrarian, revolving around the issue of land. The haciendasheld by the Augustinians, Dominicans, and Recollects totalled some 165,000hectares. In Cavite alone almost 50,000 hectares of the best farm lands andpueblo sites were in the friar haciendas. The Cavite pueblos of Naic andSanta Cruz de Malabon (the modern Tanza) were embraced within theDominican haciendas; San Francisco de Malabon (present-day Gen. Trias)was in the Augustinian hacienda of the same name; and the Recollects' SanJuan de Imus hacienda encompassed the entire towns of Bacoor, Imus,Cavite Viejo, and Dasmarinas. Because many of the families who had losttheir lands left the pueblos and became outlaws, the province came to beknown as the “cradle of the tulisan.” The rebels expelled the friars and tookover the haciendas.During this phase of the revolution there was little fighting in the Visayasand none in the Muslim south. In Luzon, Manila was swollen with refugeeSpaniards and friars from the provinces, but it was besieged by the rebels.The delivery of provincial produce and the businesses servicing the exportand import trade ground to a halt, and the port was closed.
 Four Wars; the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic 2
 
AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES
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The fighting in the provinces disrupted the local economies. Foodshortages were not acute in areas where the planting of the new rice crop hadbeen done by August, but this was shortlived. Farm labor was dislocated andthe fields idled because most of the rebels were farm workers, but this wasremedied by the women and some men from the surplus pueblo residents.But trade between the pueblos and Manila was paralyzed. In Cavite, wherethe fighting was most extensive and furious, the economy was in ruins. InBatangas and Laguna, where the Cavitenos crossed and attacked the enemygarrisons, and which were staging areas for enemy counter-offensives againstCavite, the losses were only slightly lighter, as was the case in Bulacan andNueva Ecija.In scores of provinces the cedula and other taxes could not be collected.The friar haciendas and the lands and livestock of Spaniards were takenover. Leading the seizures were the dispossessed landless families, thekasam
á
and tulisan. The latter went back to the towns, some of their leadersbecoming officers in the rebel forces. Lastly, the war produced numerousevacuee families, among whom were rich inquilinos and traders who hadhomes in the capital. These flocked to Cavite and other provinces where therevolution was strong. The inquilinos were cut off from their landholdingsand the traders from their businesses, and the trade in provisions gave wayto confiscation and requisitioning by the belligerent forces.The second phase of the revolution just after mid-May in 1898 wasmarked by unbroken successes. The nation was finally united when therevolutionary leaders in the Visayas acknowledged unity with Luzon underthe overall leadership of General Aguinaldo. It was the beginning of the newplanting season, and the dislocation of agriculture and farm labor broadenedand deepened. Civilian movement of goods in normal trade remained at astandstill. But exultation and resolve supported the proclamation of independence on June 12, followed by organic laws organizing localgovernments and the revolutionary government. The men of the pueblos, whohad been irregular rebel forces, were either absorbed into local militiacommands or mustered into a regular revolutionary army. The pueblo
 Four Wars; the Political Economy of the Filipino Republic 3

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