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Studies on E Governance in India using Data Mining Perspective

Studies on E Governance in India using Data Mining Perspective

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Journal of Computing, https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/
Journal of Computing, https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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Published by: Journal of Computing on Nov 18, 2010
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Studies on E Governance in India usingData Mining Perspective
Ms. Sonali Agarwal, and Prof. G.N. Pandey
 — The fast expansion, exploitation and propagation of the innovative and promising Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) indicatenew opportunities for growth and development. Data Mining is a well established approach of discovering knowledge from databases for the purpose ofKnowledge Management. There is large number of data and information generated and collected by the different levels of governments. In case of gov-ernment, proper decision making is important to better utilization of all resources. Data Mining could help administrators to extract valuable knowledge andpractices out of this voluminous data, which can be used to obtained knowledge and practices for strategically reducing costs and increasing organizationexpansion opportunities and also detect fraud, waste and abuse. The present investigation taken Education Data related with primary education in order toanalyze status of primary education in Allahabad and in Uttar Pradesh, India. Clustering and Classification methods are used to find out similarity or dissi-milarity among various districts of Uttar Pradesh. This will create groups of districts as clusters so that these districts may further treated together underone policy. Classification method is based on reported Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER). In this method some unusual classification of district highlightedthat the Data Mining could also establish the impact of migration from one district to another when all the students are given unique identification throughsocial security number.
Index Terms
Information and Communication Technologies, Knowledge Management, Data Mining, Clustering, Classification
1 I
ata Mining is a process of Knowledge Discovery in-cludes methods used to recognize, generate, representand distribute knowledge for better utilisation of anysystem. There is large number of data and information gen-erated and collected by the different levels of governments.In case of government, proper decision making is importantto better utilization of all resources. Data Mining could helpadministrators to extract valuable knowledge and practicesout of this voluminous data, which can be used to obtainedknowledge and practices for strategically reducing costs andincreasing organization expansion opportunities and alsodetect fraud, waste and exploitation.The research work is aimed to represent the potential ofdata mining in the context of smart techniques of E Gover-nance. Data Mining provides efficient techniques for gov-ernment agencies to analyze data quickly and with lessereconomic efforts [1]. The data extraction process generatesinteresting hidden patterns. The discovered hidden patternsenable the government systems in making better decisionsand having a more advanced plan in serving the citizens [8].Here we are representing an E Governance Model based onData Mining and Data Warehousing to facilitate(i)
Efficient methods for capturing, storing and han-dling government data collected from various re-sources over a period of time.(ii)
Efficient Knowledge Management for improved in-ternal processes, government policies and programson the basis of historical data stored in its databases.The present work proposes an E Governance modelframework based on Data Mining and Data Warehousingtechniques which may be efficiently used by the governmentat all its administrative levels Nation-al/State/District/Block).The proposed Model serves allpossible aspects of E Governance with the help of four basicbuilding blocks:
Administrative Block
Technical Know How Block
Service Block
Stakeholder Block
2 R
There is an extensive range of Data Warehousing and DataMining applications in government’s regulatory, develop-mental and social welfare organization. The followings aresome examples reported in different literatures.The project Total Information Awareness (TIA) waslaunched by the US government after the terrorist attack of9/11. The objective of Total Information Awareness (TIA)was to search large data and determine associations and pat-
 Ms. Sonali Agarwal is with the Indian Institute of Information Technolo- gy, Allahabad, U.P., India
Prof. G.N. Pandey is with the Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, U.P., India
terns related with terrorist activities. The project conducteddiscovery of associations among transactions such as workpermits, credit card, airline tickets, passports, visas, rentalcars, gun purchases, driver’s license and events such as ar-rest or doubtful activities [17][15].CAPPS is known as Computer Assisted Passenger Pre-Screening System. It is a prescreening system initiated by theDepartment of Homeland Security US. It is implemented tocheck all airline passengers against a database of commer-cially available information. After checking it provides a riskcolor or status to each passenger. CAPPS collect informationprovided by the passenger for example Paasenger’s name,permanent address, contact number etc. These records arethen given to commercial data providers for assessment ofthe validity of the passenger and passenger’s correlationwith other events. The commercial data provider wouldassign a numerical score back to the owning system indicat-ing a particular risk level. The passengers having “green”score is considered as normal and safe passenger. The pas-sengers having “yellow” score then they would have to facesecond level screening test. The passengers having “red”score is considered as high risk passenger and high risk pas-sengers may not be allowed for traveling and they must befurther enquired about their identity and purpose of travel-ling [9].In May 2004, a report on federal data mining activities in-dicates that US government agencies have very well adoptedthe data mining practices in e governance. Currently thereare 199 data mining projects ongoing in various stages. Stu-dies indicates that the government is also running some un-disclosed data mining projects for example national securityaagency's eavesdropping project and state level securityproject matrix [10].There are several research work published in the field ofmodel-building phase of the Data Mining process. A paperbased on Data Mining application for income tax departmentdiscusses how to build a Data Mining algorithm centeredapplication for the regulation of different government activi-ties [13]. Main concern of this paper includes architecture ofData Mining based application, working methodology andthe
integration of knowledge of domain experts.
A Data Mining tool iHealth was developed by a healthorganization CSIRO. It provides a web based interface forData Mining and Data analyses tool for large health relateddatabases. The tool provides various clustering and classifi-cation methods to identify patients having certain specificprofiles. The patients’ profile could be visualized by usingvarious visualization techniques [6].A paper presented a Data Mining based approach tostudy about student performance and dropout rate [11]. Themethod used Clustering and Decision Rule Data Miningtechniques to identify collection of clusters, which have beenhelpful to understand the nature of data. A Data Miningbased approach is discovered to classify the selected custom-ers into clusters using Recency, Frequency, Monetary value(RFM) model to identify high-profit, gold customers. Associ-ation rules may establish the similarity, difference betweencustomer’s behaviors [6].
3 B
The proposed E Governance model covers all important as-pect of E Governance in a single model. There are four BasicBuilding Blocks of proposed E Governance Model. The low-est block is the Administration Block, which regulates theoverall function of any country through efficient govern-ment.
Fig. 1: Basic Building block of the Proposed E Governance Model
The overall regulation of government bodies may be car-ried out by using appropriate Technical know how. TheTechnical know how block includes computerization of ma-nual processes, commonly agreed technological standard,Database related applications and easy access of information.The third block is Service Block, which includes all availableoperations of the E Governance. It provides an interface be-tween user and government system. The upper block isStakeholder Block, which has various categories of usersworking with the system. The user categories may be a Citi-zen, Business organization or any Government organization[13].
3.1 Module 1: Administration
Administration is a way of management of any working sys-tem supervised by an administrator. In any democratic sys-tem the administration may be governed by a structuredbody name as government. The term Governance is basicallythe responsibility of a Government which includes each andevery processes performed by the government body. Themain activity of the government is to controll the working ofdifferent departments for exmaple Finance, Health, Educa-tion, Agriculture, Employment etc. All these activities arenow maintained efficiently by using ICT. The transformationof the working from conventional methods to modern me-thods of Information Technology (IT) is now known as EGovernment. The use of ICT in government activities havegiven a new idea of governance knows as E Governance.
Salient features of the proposed model
The purpose of E Governance is to establishing good gover-nance and have seamless coordination between governmentauthorities, public and business parties. The utilization ofICT may join all three different sectors and support devel-opment and management. Therefore, following are the sa-lient features of the proposed model.
To provide proper information and awareness to thecitizen about the political practices and choices available.2.
To provide online services and active participation fordifferent citizen services.3.
To utilize ICT in government functions, that providesquick and well-organized communication with thepeople, business and other agencies.4.
To provide better decision-making through greater de-centralization of governance [4].The proposed model is based on ICT, which may reformorganizational structures in both centralized as well as de-centralized manner. These approaches of E Governmenthave their own set of advantages and disadvantages.
Centralized Model
Centralize government initiatives are favorable as portalsand services to reduce cost and integration issues. Centralizegovernment initiatives may share technical, financial andhuman resources. A Single portal access is very useful forany end user because all the information may be centrallyavailable here. There are following features of Centralized EGovernance model.
All government process based on ICTs are centra-lized in one organizational unit.
Generally limited Infrastructural and set up costsbut less effective.
Centralized E Governance models have a single in-terface for its different users and these models couldbe easily enforced.
Decentralized Model
Decentralized model is required at lower level so that vari-ous projects can be handled saparatelty from initiation toexecutation [3]. There are following features of DecentralizedE Governance model.
All government functions could be distributedamong various divisions or organizations.
Generally has a high coordination cost.
3.1.2 State level Model of E Governance
The State level model is based on the combination of bothcentralized and decentralized approaches. In State level,State government becomes the main coordinator of theproject and lower government offices with their departmentsbecome the partners of that project. Figure 1.2 describes ho-rizontal and vertical interconnections of E Governance.
Fig.2 : Horizontal and Vertical interconnection for E Governance
Certain important decisions are jointly made andthen standardized across the various levels.
Responsibilities as well as capabilities are decentra-lized at different government departments/levels,with infrastructure and output sharing across theState as a system.
Generally, high E Governance set up costs but moreresponsive to stakeholder needs. Higher level com-mittees are formed to manage various Governmentactivities. These committees have authority to con-trol the functioning of large area.Intra-department or horizontal and vertical collaborationsare very essential for success of any E Governance project. Itis very necessary to perform governance functions, shareinformation and deliver services to all stakeholders. Thesecollaborations depend on issues like what are the different

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