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Lexeme: An Ontology-Based Semantic Advertising Networks

Lexeme: An Ontology-Based Semantic Advertising Networks

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Journal of Computing, https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/
Journal of Computing, https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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Published by: Journal of Computing on Nov 18, 2010
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Lexeme: An Ontology-Based SemanticAdvertising Networks
 Lilac A. Al-Safadi, Aseel Al-Dawood, Nadeen Al-Abdullatif
 — Lexeme is a prototype for advertising network that connects Web sites that want to host advertisements withadvertisers who want to run advertisements. Lexeme aims to implement better approaches for reaching and attracting targetcustomers by integrating semantic Web technology and enables computers to know what particular ads mean, to know whatparticular Web sites are about, and to understand the relationships between them all. Advertising networks’ reliance on only thekeywords in the content results in displaying irrelevant and unappealing ads on the Web page. The Semantic-Based AdvertisingNetworks moves beyond simple keywords by understanding all the words on a page, and how they relate to one another. InLexeme, the description of ads and Web site content relies on the ontology that represents the conceptualization of theknowledge domain. Advertiser defines the concept that corresponds to the product or services to sell in their ad along withproperties specifying the characteristics of the product and relationships with other concepts. The paper proposes a novelapproach for matching ads with Web site content using semantic Web technology, illustrated by Lexeme prototype.
Index Terms
 — Intelligent Web Services and Semantic Web, Ontology, Electronic commerce, Context Analysis and Indexing.
1 I
HE escalation of the Internet as a consumer mediumin the 1990s is unprecedented in the history of media.The Internet made its way into our homes and officesfaster than any other medium (or appliance), reachingfifty-million users in only five years (it took radio thirty-six years to get to that point) [6]. The power of the Inter-net is especially evident in the business industry as mar-keters and advertisers realize the significant financial re-wards the Web can offer. One of the goals of marketing iscontacting potential customers directly, without investingin a big ad or research budget. This is possible with theInternet. Rapid growth in the number of online venueshas led advertisers to market directly, as marketing andadvertising campaigns are using the Web as an efficientpathway into our homes and lives. While banner ads onWeb sites sometimes get no more than one percent re-sponse (compared to five to seven percent for direct mail),the cost is dramatically less. A Web site may cost $5 foreach 1,000 people who view a marketing message, whiledirect mail could average $50 to reach the same 1,000 setsof views [2]. Nevertheless, the basics of marketing con-tinue to hold true.
1.1 Advertising Networks
Advertising networks or ad networks are companies thatconnect Web sites that want to host advertisements withadvertisers who want to run advertisements. Neverthe-less, it is a mistake for these Ad networks to think thatusers are willing to sift through Web pages before theystumble on appealing ads. Advertising networks can onlybe effective when they are able to bring resources andproducts that are of interest to the Web user. AdSense(www.google.com/adsense) is one of the most famous adnetworks. It presents ads based on tracing the contentaround the page and matching keywords with adver-tisements. However, advertising networks' reliance ononly the keywords in the content without an accurateinterpretation of the context of the page, results in dis-playing irrelevant and unappealing ads on the Web page[14].
1.2 Semantic Web
Semantics is a field that studies the meaning of words,phrases, sentences, and larger units of discourse [15]. Se-mantic technologies enable semantic interoperability forIT systems with different data structures, formats, andvocabularies, without changing the core systems them-selves [17]. The introduction of semantics into the adver-tising networks will solve some of the failed attempts atreaching target audiences and increase the potential toleverage existing information on the Web for far greaterbenefits to advertisers.Unlike humans, computers do not possess a range ofvocabulary understanding. In order to understand whatwords mean and what the relationships between wordsare, a computer has to have documents that describe allthe words and logic to make the necessary connections[13]. In the semantic Web, these documents come fromontologies and schemata. In terms of the Internet, an on-tology is a file that defines the relationships among agroup of terms [8]. A schema is a method for organizinginformation.
L. A. Al-Safadi, A. Al-Dawood, N. Al-Abdullatif are with the Departmentof Information Technology, College of Computer & Information Sciences,King Saud University.
1.3 The Relationship between the Semantic Weband Advertising
In the early days of online advertising the targeting ofadvertisements to different types of content pages wascrude. Targeting was first done on a “run of network”(RON) basis [7]. In RON, the advertiser purchases bannerinventory across an ad network's entire range of sites.RON is a type of non-targeting advertising.Target advertising is reaching the right person with theright message at the right time, which is the ultimate goalof advertising. The ability to deliver relevant messages tospecific targets is among the significant and distinctattributes of online advertising. The range of availableonline targeting options is vast and becoming increasing-ly complex [18]. To apply target advertising, ad networksoften aggregate sites into specific categories or demo-graphic groups, then sell ad inventory to advertisers ei-ther to specific sites within the specific categories or de-mographics.Many online advertisers focus on contextual targeting.Contextual advertising analyze the content of Web sitesand display relevant ads accordingly. By using contextualtargeting, advertisers increase the probability that theirads will reach people who are in the market for theirproducts. Contextual keyword-targeted advertising letsadvertisers select individual pages or articles based onkeywords appearing in those pages or articles. Today,Google is the largest contextually targeted advertisingnetwork in the world, with billions of pages served dailyacross thousands of Web sites.Some companies are beginning to understand the ad-vantages of semantic technology for determining the con-text and placements of ads: PEER39 [3], takes into accountthe meaning of the entire Web page instead of portions ofit. It references a virtual database of potential meaningsand literal connections for the keyword. PEER39 does notdeal with RDFs or Ontologies. Instead, it implements theidea of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and MachineLearning which builds algorithms that simulate humans'minds by allowing computers to process and understandhuman languages, in order to achieve the desired seman-tics. iSense [1] distinguished itself from natural language,algorithmic-based semantic classification systems by hav-ing a team of 40 lexicographers and linguists assignwords from a dictionary to a framework of knowledgecategories.This paper presents Lexeme, a Semantic AdvertisingNetwork prototype, specializing in educational ads. Lex-eme is a context-based ad network that incorporates theSemantic Web technology enabling computers to knowwhat particular ads mean, to know what particular WebPages are about, and to understand relationships betweenthem all. This is achieved through; 1) making disparateads and Web sites content semantically interoperable sothat data can be retrieved and aligned automatically andon demand, and 2) providing techniques and tools to en-able machines to intelligently search and match relatedads with publishers over their content.The proposed prototype aims at overcoming the limi-tations of the traditional keyword-based advertising net-works in spending energy, time, and money pursuing thewrong prospects and marketing to the wrong channels.The remaining of the paper is organized as follows. Inthe next section we present the general model of our pro-posed semantic advertising network framework and insection 3, we discuss how an ad content is entered intothe system and conceptualized based on the ontology ofproducts’ domain as well as its analysis on the serverside. In section 4, we discuss the execution of the adver-tise-publisher matching process and how advertises areplaced on the resulted publishers. The experimental re-sults and conclusions are given in sections 5 and 6 respec-tively.
Figure 1 below illustrates how Lexeme works. Lexemebegins with publishers registering his/her Web site inLexeme. Lexeme analyses the publishers’ Web page, se-mantically index their content and stores them in its data-base. When an advertiser registers in Lexeme and upl-oads ads content, Lexeme selects an appropriate publish-er based on the semantic content of the uploaded ad anddisplays the ad on the relevant publishers’ Web sites. Itthen tracks the number of clicks received from each visi-tor of the publisher Web site and direct them to the adver-tiser’s Web site.
Fig. 1. An abstract description of Lexeme ad matching process
2.1 Lexeme Architecture
Semantic advertising networks provide the capability tomatch ads with relevant publishers on the basis of itsmeaning, or semantics. The core idea of Lexeme is to uselogical languages to make the structure and meaning ofcontent explicit, and to attach this information directly tothe content, so that at run-time, automated procedurescan determine whether and how to align content of bothads and publishers’ Web sites.Figure 2 below illustrates Lexeme’s proposed architec-ture, which constitute of two main phases; the conceptua-lization of the content of the ads and Web sites, and thematch of the content of the ads and Web sites.Conceptualization refers to the set of objects, conceptsand other entities that exists in a document in some areaof interest together with the relationships that holdamong them. A conceptualization is like a group of con-cepts related to a particular slice of reality (domain) [5].
Fig. 2. A detailed description of the Architecture of Lexeme
Tagging data with describing metadata is a key strate-gy for using semantic technology. In the conceptualiza-tion phase, the publisher tries to describe the context ofthe Web site as a sequence of terms through the Web siteRegistration module. A knowledge domain ontology [4,10] is used to express the ad as a set of concepts asso-ciated with their corresponding properties. Lexeme wasdeveloped and tested using education advertising do-main ontology (EAO) [9].Before storing the Web site content, the RDF ExtractorEngine extracts the RDF model from the Web site andconverts it into an RDF graph. An RDF graph is a set ofRDF triples (subject, verb, and objects). Triples are thebasis of information representation. The Graph and theWeb site’s data are stored in Lexeme's database.At the advertiser’s site, the advertiser creates his/herad through the Ad Registration module. The Term Extrac-tor is a semi automatic tool used to assist advertisers inselecting the concepts that best describe his/her ad. Theselected concepts will be transformed to RDF syntax(model) through the Concept Mapper. The RDF modelwill be converted into RDF graph through the Ad GraphConstructor module.In the match phase, the Semantic Matcher matches thead’s RDF against the publishers’ RDF repository for themost relevant Web site. Ad Placer associates and placesthe ad in the most relevant Web sites.
In this section we explain in detail the content conceptua-lization process of both the ad and Web site. In our pro-posed model, advertiser describes the content of the adthat relies on EAO ontology as a concept followed by a setof attribute-value pairs, which is then interpreted andmatched against different Web sites (publishers). Whenthe advertiser registers, the system suggests a number ofterms that may describe the ad depending on the contentof the advertiser’s Web site and the ontology. In addition,the advertiser may contribute in choosing a number ofterms that describes the content of the ad. For example,in our case, “Notebook” term was supplied by the adver-tiser.Lexeme checks the EAO Ontology content and indenti-fies the sub-tree in which these concepts belong to. Belowis the sub-tree representation of the term “Notebook” thatappeared in the advertisers Web site.
Fig. 3 (a). “Notebook” as a subclass of “Computer” in EAOFig. 3 (b). “Notebook” as a subclass of “Stationary” in EAO
Figure 3 shows that the "Notebook" belongs to differ-ent parent nodes “Stationary” and “Computer”, but sharethe same antecedent "Product". Lexeme interactivelypresents a list of options including one that consists inconfirmation of sub-tree, as shown in figure 4.
Fig. 4. List of terms suggested by Lexeme for the advertiser
For refinement, after choosing the parent concept thesystem suggests a list of properties, expressed in a naturallanguage, which corresponds, here in our case, to the"notebook" as “computer” product, namely: "is colored","is priced for", "is dimensioned", "is manufactured by ", asshown in figure 5. Advertiser selects a property and thenassigns to it, a specific value. In our example the price ofthe product was set to "2000" and manufactured by"Asus". That represents the value of the selected property"price" and the property "is manufactured by".

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