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The Psychology of Thinking Study Guide

The Psychology of Thinking Study Guide

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Published by: Vanessa on Jul 31, 2008
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06/14/2009

 
 
VANESSA’S
 
Super
 
Crazy 
 
Fun 
 
Psychology of Thinking
 
Condensed Study Guide
Version 6.0
 
Psychology 122 – Final Study GuideProfessor Matt SerraDuke University – Fall 2006Vanessa Villamia Sochat
C
ONTENTS
 
CONSCIOUSNESS
.......................................................................................................................................................... 2Four Proposed Functions of Consciousness .............................................................................................................. 2Proposed Views on Source of Consciousness ........................................................................................................... 2
Consciousness is a fundamental property of matter.
............................................................................................ 2
Consciousness is a property of protoplasm
........................................................................................................... 2
Consciousness is the result of learning
.................................................................................................................. 2
Consciousness as a metaphysical imposition
........................................................................................................ 2
Hapless Spectator Theory 
...................................................................................................................................... 3Problems ................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Emergent Evolution
............................................................................................................................................... 3
Consciousness as the nervous system itself 
.......................................................................................................... 3What consciousness
is
or
isn’t 
.............................................................................................................................. 3
LEARNING
..................................................................................................................................................................... 3Associationist View Learning..................................................................................................................................... 4Signal Learning ...................................................................................................................................................... 4Skill Learning ......................................................................................................................................................... 4Solution Learning:
how can we figure out how to make something happen more? 
............................................. 4Location of Consciousness ........................................................................................................................................ 5Non-consciousness ....................................................................................................................................................... 5Memory and Unconscious Processing .......................................................................................................................... 5
Testing Implicit vs Explicit Memory 
........................................................................................................................... 5
DREAMS
........................................................................................................................................................................ 6Realist Theory of Dreams .......................................................................................................................................... 6Today’s Theories ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
Heuristic Theory: Sigmund Freud 
.......................................................................................................................... 6
Physical Theory of Dreams
.................................................................................................................................... 6Why do we Dream? ............................................................................................................................................... 7
CREATIVITY
! ................................................................................................................................................................. 7Human Creativity ...................................................................................................................................................... 7
Inspirational Approach
.......................................................................................................................................... 8
Romantic View 
...................................................................................................................................................... 8Creative Solutions ..................................................................................................................................................... 8Approaches to Study of Creativity ............................................................................................................................ 8
Psychometric Approach
......................................................................................................................................... 8
Information Processing Approach
....................................................................................................................... 10Developmental View in Psychology ........................................................................................................................ 10Working Definition for Creativity ............................................................................................................................ 11
 
 
CONSCIOUSNESS
What is consciousness?
 
Behaviorists say that it doesn’t exist, only behavior is important
 
Is it inner awareness?
F
OUR
P
ROPOSED
F
UNCTIONS OF
C
ONSCIOUSNESS
 
1) A simplification function: decides what to do next2) A guiding and overseeing actions function3) sets priorities for action4) detects and resolves discrepancies
P
ROPOSED
V
IEWS ON
S
OURCE OF
C
ONSCIOUSNESS
 
ONSCIOUSNESS IS A FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTY OF MATTER
.
o
 
it is an interaction between any pieces of matter
o
 
we interact with different matters differently
o
 
This view does not get at the
why 
of the experience
ONSCIOUSNESS IS A PROPERTY OF PROTOPLASM
 
o
 
it is a fundamental property of all living things
o
 
it is a matter of evolutionary level. As complexity increases, so does level of consciousness
o
 
Jennings: research supports this viewtaught worms mazeGround up wormsFed to other wormsWorms could do the maze!
o
 
we commonly project our consciousness onto other organisms (my dog, bird)
ONSCIOUSNESS IS THE RESULT OF LEARNING
 
o
 
consciousness began when associative learning appeared after life had evolved
o
 
interprets higher mental processes as resulting from combinations of sensory/mental elements.Associations are based on three principles:
 
Contiguity
 
Contingency
 
Similarity
o
 
if an animal can modify its behavior based on experience, it must be aware of that experience.
o
 
Ohhh no, consciousness CAN’T be the result of learning. Here’s why.
 
Being conscious of something doesn’t correlate with learning it, and learning somethingdoesn’t mean we are conscious of it!
 
 
Studies showing non-conscious learning
 
 
Studies showing how consciousness is detrimental to learning
 
(for this information, go to next section)
 
ONSCIOUSNESS AS A METAPHYSICAL IMPOSITION
 
o
 
this theory assumes that it is impossible that consciousness evolved biologically
 
o
 
Life evolved up to a certain point, and then man went an entirely different direction. We areSPECIAL! (at least I know I am
)
 
o
 
Something divine had to be thrown in the mix
 
 
 
 
Wallace: proposed that some metaphysical force directed evolution at three criticalpoints in man’s evolution:
 
 
Beginning of life
 
 
Beginning of consciousness
 
 
Beginning of civilized culture
 
I’m a scientist, I don’t buy in!
H
 APLESS
S
PECTATOR
HEORY 
 
o
 
When some level of complexity is reached, consciousness is just there
o
 
This is a materialistic view: can be explained by laws of matter
o
 
Consciousness isn’t anything it all, it can’t do anything, it’s just along for the ride
o
 
Everything we see/think/do is determined by the wiring diagram of the brain!
 
Consciousness is just heat given off by the wires
PROBLEMS
1)
 
Consciousness fluctuates2)
 
Cocktail party effect3)
 
Too strong a correlation between intensity/focus/awareness. Isn’t just a hapless spectator
MERGENT 
VOLUTION
 
o
 
Consciousness emerged at some point in a very derivable form from its constituent parts. So itwas an…
o
 
Emergent Property: something that is unexpected when you combine other things, and usually isgreater than the sum of the parts
o
 
Leaves open the possibility for a new emergence – is a liberation from physics and chemistry - welove it!
 
Watson: (can someone tell me how he saved psychology, because I’m not sure about the order)
 
ONSCIOUSNESS AS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ITSELF 
 
o
 
An attempt to locate consciousness in the body
o
 
As complexity increases in brain, level of consciousness increases
o
 
Reticular Formation
 
Tangle of neurons that extends from top of spinal column that receives input from everyorgan and area of the cortex
 
Is evolutionary one of oldest parts of brain, so complexity argument doesn’t work.
W
HAT CONSCIOUSNESS
IS
OR
ISN
’ 
 
1)
 
you can’t
lose
it. You lose reactivity2)
 
it is sum total of mental processes occurring now, moving forward3)
 
it knits itself over time gaps4)
 
it is not necessary in certain circumstances (automatic processes)5)
 
conscious retrospection is not the retrieval of images6)
 
It is not necessary for learning or concepts
CONSCIOUSNESS
AND LEARNING
 
Consciousness is not necessary for learning!

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