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Public Policy 55D Class Notes

Public Policy 55D Class Notes

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Published by: Vanessa on Jul 31, 2008
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09/25/2013

 
 
PUBLIC POLICY 55D CLASS NOTESPROFESSOR JUDITH KELLEYDUKE UNIVERSITY - SPRING 2007
Vanessa Villamia Sochat
CONTENTS
Public Policy 55D Introduction to Policy Analysis .................................................................................. 2
Elements of Policy Analysis
..................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction to the Theory of Games
...................................................................................................................... 9
Coordination Games
.......................................................................................................................................... 10
Competitive Games
........................................................................................................................................... 11
Mixed Motive Games
........................................................................................................................................ 13Purpose of a Policy Memorandum.............................................................................................................................. 15
Structure of Policy memo
...................................................................................................................................... 15Theory of Games II ...................................................................................................................................................... 16
Pareto Efficiency
.................................................................................................................................................... 16
Sequential Games
: ................................................................................................................................................. 17
Repeated Games
.................................................................................................................................................... 20
Multi-Party Games
................................................................................................................................................. 22Individual Preferences and Collective Action II: MARKETS ......................................................................................... 23
Market Demand
..................................................................................................................................................... 24
Producer’s Supply
.................................................................................................................................................. 25Market Failures ........................................................................................................................................................... 29
Public Goods
........................................................................................................................................................... 29
Externalities
. .......................................................................................................................................................... 32What is Negotiation? .................................................................................................................................................. 38
Pareto Efficiency
.................................................................................................................................................... 41
Ethics and Bargaining
............................................................................................................................................. 44Negotiations II ............................................................................................................................................................. 44
 
 Multi-issue Negotiations ............................................................................................................................................. 44Valuing Social Outcomes ............................................................................................................................................. 51
Option 1: The Pareto Principle
.............................................................................................................................. 52
Option 2: Voting
..................................................................................................................................................... 52
Option 3: Potential Compensation
........................................................................................................................ 52
Cost Benefit Analysis
.............................................................................................................................................. 59
The Discount Rate
.................................................................................................................................................. 66
Valuing Life
........................................................................................................................................................ 70
Compound Decisions
............................................................................................................................................. 79
Probability
.............................................................................................................................................................. 81
The Value of Information
....................................................................................................................................... 86Money and Risk Subjective Expected Utility Theory .................................................................................. 89Political Analysis 94Rational Choice Theory ......................................................................................................................................... 100Politics of Interests II 102
Median Voter Model
............................................................................................................................................ 102
Pressure Group Theory
........................................................................................................................................ 104The Politics of Symbols ............................................................................................................................................. 110
PUBLIC POLICY 55D – INTRODUCTION TO POLICY ANALYSIS
JANUARY 11, 2007
Professor Judith Kelley
Introduction
 
 
What is public policy?
 
What is policy analysis?
 
Goals of the course
 
Organization of the course
What is public policy?
 
 
 
definition: a public policy is an action by a government that affects public welfare
 
Includes
o
 
Laws
o
 
Rules and regulations (FDA)
o
 
Programs (welfare, Medicare) and practices
o
 
Specific policy changes
 
at international, national, state, and local levels
Public Policy Examples
 
 
Health and safety
 
Poverty and welfare (Medicare/Medicaid)
 
Crime (gun control)
 
Education (no child left behind)
 
Transportation (gas mileage for cars, airbags)
 
Environment (Kyoto protocol, global warming)
 
Foreign Policy (Iraq)
What is Analysis
 
 
Analysis = taking apart, breaking into components
 
Description: what is happening?
 
Explanation: why is it happening? (treating symptoms versus problem itself)
 
Prediction: what will happen if… (we implement this policy in current situation, what are unintendedconsequences?)
 
Prescription: what
should 
we do? From whose perspective? Who votes? Are the people who get to votethe most affected?Take it apart, describe it, explain it, try to predict all results, and prescribe
What is Policy Analysis
 
 
Analysis of Public policies (eg governmental actions)
 
Purpose: inform policy choice
 
Multidisciplinary
o
 
Economics
o
 
Statistics
o
 
Political science
o
 
Law
o
 
Ethics
o
 
Sociology
o
 
Psychology
ELEMENTS OF POLICY ANALYSIS
 
 
Define the problem
o
 
What is the problem?
 
Identify Policy Options
o
 
What could government do? What are the options? What are financial, practical constraints

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