Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
11Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning

Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,300|Likes:
Cognitive Neuroscience or more broadly, the Neuroscience-associated paradigm encompassing Cognitive Science, Positive Psychology, NLP etc provide by far the most comprehensive approach to understanding the process of learning. However debatable, it is undeniable that when it comes to practical terms, the body of knowledge stemming from Neuroscience, whether strictly academic and scientific or pragmatic and phenomenological, does more to clarify what it means to learn. In this article we present a hands-on approach derived from direct experience in empowering students to learn.
Cognitive Neuroscience or more broadly, the Neuroscience-associated paradigm encompassing Cognitive Science, Positive Psychology, NLP etc provide by far the most comprehensive approach to understanding the process of learning. However debatable, it is undeniable that when it comes to practical terms, the body of knowledge stemming from Neuroscience, whether strictly academic and scientific or pragmatic and phenomenological, does more to clarify what it means to learn. In this article we present a hands-on approach derived from direct experience in empowering students to learn.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Ramachandra B Subramanyam on Nov 18, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/08/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Dr. B S Ramachandra and Ms. Pratiti B RCentre for Fundamental Research and Creative Education
Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning
The present article is intended to provide clues to a workable solution to a pressing problem:What is that one thing we can do to ensure that learning may be restored to its rightful position asa natural, spontaneous, exhilarating, enthralling and intensely fulfilling experience? It is proposed as an answer to questions and issues that have been around for a long time andrepeatedly raised by prescient thinkers in diverse domains of human endeavor. Indian Wisdom,Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Rousseau, Bertrand Russell, Pestalozzi, Swami Vivekananda,Sister Nivedita, Sri Aurobindo, J Krishnamurti, John Dewy to name only a very few, have muchto enlighten us even in present day education. However, every age has its own challenges andneeds must be expressed and met in contemporary context, in a language most appropriate to it.Presently, Cognitive Neuroscience is that language.The field of education abounds with theories, models, experiential methods and traditionalwisdom. Almost all of these acquire fresh significance in the light of the new discoveriesstemming from the ‘Decade of the Brain’ investigations in Cognitive Neuroscience. Cognitive Neuroscience provides by far the most comprehensive and incisive approach to learning in thecontext of the contemporary information era. It brings with it the power of simplicity on onehand and systems thinking and complexity on the other hand. In this, it has close kinship with theFifth Discipline Paradigm inspired by Edwards Deming and pioneered by Peter Senge and hisschool. Cognitive Neuroscience allows one to model the Brain as a complex adaptive,evolutionary, psycho-physical active processing system. It incorporates the findings of CognitiveScience and that of Neuroscience to arrive at coherent, constructive, workable models of thelearning apparatus. In what follows, we propose one possible model we have developed and thatwe have been using consistently to empower students at our Centre to discover learning as a joyful, exhilarating, enthralling and meaningful experience.In his highly insightful book, “How Children Fail”, John Holt begins with the alarming opentruth that one knows only too well but ignores nevertheless baffled by the very complexity or rather, simplicity of the problem. In his own words, that is a wake-up call to American educationand applies equally or perhaps more, to Indian education,
“Most children in school fail…’for a great many, this failure is avowed and absolute. Close to forty percent of those who begin high school drop out before they finish…. Many others fail in fact if not in name….But there is a more important sense in which almost all children fail:
 
 Except for a handful, who may or may not be good students, they fail to develop more than a tiny part of the tremendous capacity for learning, understanding, and creating with which they wereborn and of which they made full use during the first two or three years of their lives. Why dothey fail? They fail because they are afraid, bored, and confused. They are afraid, above all else,of failing, of disappointing or displeasing the many anxious adults around them, whose limitlesshopes and expectations for them hang over their heads like a cloud.They are bored because the things they are given and told to do in school are so trivial, so dull,and make such limited and narrow demands on the wide spectrum of their intelligence,capabilities, and talents.They are confused because most of the torrent of words that pours over them in school makeslittle or no sense. It often flatly contradicts other things they have been told, and hardly ever hasany relation to what they really know – the rough model of reality that they carry around in their minds. How does this mass failure take place? What really goes on in the classroom? What are thesechildren who fail doing? What goes on in their heads? Why don’t they make use of more of their capacity?”
Strikingly, the very same situation prevailing in the corporate world has been described by W.Edwards Deming, the pioneer of the quality-control movement in Management and the one whotransformed Japan into what it presently is. Deming has the following to say,
 
"The teacher sets the aims, the student responds to those aims. The teacher has the answer, the student works to get the answer. Students know when they have succeeded because the teacher tells them. By the time children are 10 they know what it takes to get ahead in school and pleasethe teacher - a lesson they carry forward through their careers of pleasing bosses and failing toimprove the system..." 
Yet another thinker who echoes John Holt and Deming is Robert Kiyosaki. He says,
"It is time for our society, and particularly our educational system, to stop playing the game of winners and losers with our children's minds, hearts, and financial futures.... In our own school years, most of us were subjected not to a system of education but to a systemof elimination --and that system sadly continues even to this day. Rather than helping us developthe very best in each of us, this system has pitted us against each other in a tragic struggle whereonly those whom the system defines as the 'fittest' have survived. In this system less than 15 percent of us are defined as winners. The rest of us are left with a diminished sense of our own self-worth. Instead of leaving school with confidence that we have skills to do well in life, all too many of ushave graduated crippled and hurt. What's even worse, most of us are shamefully unprepared for the challenges that we meet in the adult world. ..
 
 In this game of winners and losers into which we've been thrown, even the so-called winnersultimately lose since we end up with a society where only a small fraction of our human potentials are ever discovered or utilized. The cost to all of us is immeasurable - in terms of  financial pressure, low productivity, crime, emotional stress, and a continuing diminishment of  personal satisfaction.
To keep things practical and workable, we focus on four key principles.i)The Triune Brain
ii)
The Four Brain States or Frequencies
iii)
The Conscious Brain’s Reticular Activating System.iv)The Subconscious Psycho-Cybernetic MechanismThese suffice to arrive at a comprehensive workable model of learning and as a consequence, the principles to be followed in teaching.
The Triune Brain
As humans we have not one but three brains. We already knew this at school. But there, it was socast that it did not even excite our curiosity. We learnt of the hind brain, the mid brain and thefore brain. If, instead, if the textbooks had rephrased these as the survival brain, the emotional-social brain and the self-aware brain, we would at once get interested. It would be even morestriking if we were told that these three brains are like the drives of a computer, the C drive, theD drive, the E drive, for instance. Just as the computer has partitions to take care of specificfunctions, so also our brain has these three brains. Why call our brain to consist of three brains?Because, the three brains are in fact have quite independent origins. It is later that they getintegrated into the Brain as we know it. The survival brain gets developed in course of evolutionin the reptiles. So you might as well call it the reptilian brain. The emotional-social brain formsin mammals, so call it the mammalian brain. The self-aware brain gets formed in humans, so callit the human brain. Reptiles have therefore only a survival brain. It performs only those functionsthat help the reptile to survive. What are these? Fight, flight, freeze and reproduce. Mammalshave the emotional brain in addition. It enables the mammal to have ‘social connections’, whichat that level means to care for the young and for the species or pack or ‘family’. Humans have allthe three, the Survival Brain, the Emotional Brain and the Self-aware Brain. It enables humans to perform the most significant function that characterizes them, namely, to ‘think’ and all thatfollows from it.We see at once that reptiles can only be trained. Mammals can be trained and tamed. Humansalone can be trained, tamed and educated. This reframing of the brain allows us to immediatelyunderstand the role of different disciplines or subjects in brain development. Each of the three brains needs different kinds of disciplines. For instance, sports and physical education helpdevelop the Reptilian Brain. Art, Literature, Poetry, Music, Painting, History, help develop theMammalian Brain. Science, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Philosophy, Analysis help develop the

Activity (11)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
puvdk50 liked this
SMALL EAGLE liked this
Emily Shinn liked this
Emily Shinn liked this
Emily Shinn liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->