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Thermal Spray Deposition to Produce Steel Cutting Wheels

Thermal Spray Deposition to Produce Steel Cutting Wheels

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THERMAL SPRAY DEPOSITION TO PRODUCE STEELCUTTING WHEELS.
A. A. Borhaan and Luay Bakir.HusainSchool of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus,Universiti Sains Malaysia,14300 Nibong Tebal., Pulau Pinang
ABSTRACT
The target of this study was to produce cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Thermal spray bonding technology was used to producelow alloy steel and stainless steel cuttingwheels. Two different types of powder (Al-Si, Ni-Cr-B) as bonding agent and  diamond as abrasives for both steels wereused. Low alloy steel was discarded due toits low cut of depth performance. However, stainless steel coated by two types of powder has reached acceptable testing stages. Wear rate (mg/cm
 2
 ) and  related tests have been carried out for different load and speeds as function of  time, whereas the wear rate shows high dependency on operating conditions aswell as the powder type.
 
INTRODUCTION
Diamond/cubic boron nitride abrasiveproducts are noted for high durability andwear resistance making them economicallyattractive and particularly suitable for rangeof industrial application such as toolsharpening deep grinding of difficult-to-machine materials. These physicalcharacteristics of diamond and CBN allowan increase in the productivity by takinglarge depth of cut with less metallurgicalwork-piece damage (increased quality).When compared to conventional abrasivesthey also give longer wheel life, loweringthe overall cost [1].The abrasive materials industryinterfaces directly with the heavyindustries, particularly the iron and steel,automotive, and construction industriesthrough the widespread use of abrasiveproducts for grinding, cutting, polishingand finishing operations. The industry ischaracterized by wide variation in itsproduction technologies from ordinarymining, grinding and sizing operations tohigh-temperature, high-pressure synthesisfor diamond and cubic boron nitride.Certain segments of the industry arecharacterized by rapid innovations andtechnological changes. Composed of a widevariety of materials, the abrasive materialsindustry is in the midst of redirection.However, certain segments are fast growingwhile certain others are at a standstill or, insome cases, declining. Also, there havebeen new developments in materials,processing and applications in the areas of abrasive materials [2].A key premise of coating research todayis the idea that the coating actually cuts thework-piece, not the substrate body [3].Among various factors affectingperformance and lifetimes of cutting tools,coatings are probably the most important.The coating's composition and adherencequalities are powerful promoters of metalworking productivity.Controlled variation of substratematerials also enhances coatingperformance [4]. The substrate must be ableto withstand stresses encountered in thecutting operations. For example we haveused low alloy steel as substrate, although itshows good adhesion, but it still dull outunder cutting stresses.The use of thermal spray has developedfor the past few decades, the basic need forthis development has derived from therequirement of high technologyapplications of surface engineering such ashigh temperature applications, resistance of wear and corrosion. Furthermore the use of this technology (thermal spray) has beenapplied even in medical applications [5].
 
The cutting tool has also been supported bythis technology, where the cutting edgehardness increased by coated layer of abrasive materials such as diamond.Currently it’s quite difficult to find therelated study on this application of thermalsprayed abrasive tool. As a result we hopethat this work could widen the ground of thermal spray applications in cutting tool.The targets of this study are observationof possibilities of using thermal sprayedlayers of two different powders, which areAl-Si as soft bonding agent and Ni-Cr-B ashard bonding agent as cutting tools. Theselayers would be applied to two differentsubstrates, which are low alloy steel andstainless steel.
MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE.
Two type of powder were used in thisstudy which are [Al-Si (silicon- aluminum)alloy of (50-160
µ
m)
 
and
 
Ni-Cr-B (nickel-chromium-boron) alloy of (50-160
µ
m)].The powder was mixed with 10 Wt% of abrasive materials (diamond), andsubsequently used as thermal spray powder.Thermal spray Metco 5P gun was usedand two circular steel discks were used tomask the stainless steel and low alloy steelsubstrates. The mask allows the coating totake place only on the edge of substrates.The powder was fed from the powdercontainer and heated in the gases stream athigh temperature, then directed to the plateto be coated under the gases pressure. Themolten and semi molten powder impact onthe substrate to form a coating layer.
METALLOGRAPHY AND SEM FORTHERMAL SPRAY COATINGSRESULTS
Figure 1 shows stainless steel cuttingwheel coated with Al-Si -diamond. Thediamond particles seem strongly knit bybonding powder that was due to lowermelting point of Al-Si, Figure 1A
(A)(B)
Figure 1 shows stainless steel coated edgearea, (C) photograph of coated area , (D)EDX analysis on diamond particles.
(A)(B)
 
Figure 2 shows cutting edge stainless steelcoated with Ni-Cr-B-diamond (A) SEMtopography of cutting edge, (B) EDXanalysis on Nickel particle
.
Figure 2 shows area of wheel cuttingedge, whereas in Figure 2 A the black particle according to EDX results could beNi covered with oxide layer. Figure 3shows low alloy steel coated with Al-Si-diamond powder, in this figure the splats ismore flatten compare to Ni-Cr-B coatingsthat would help in knitting the coatings
 
particles which in turn gives good retentionto the hard abrasive particles.
(A)(B)
Figure 3 shows mild steel coated with Al-Si-diamond: (A) SEM photograph of coatedarea, (B) EDX analysis on diamondparticle.
WEAR RATE AND DEPTH OF CUTAS FUNCTION OF TIME, CUTTINGSPEED AND LOAD.
The
 
wear rate and loss in cutting wheeldiameter were plotted versus time atvarious loads of ,25, 45 and 65 Nrespectively under constant speed of 6.5cmsec
-1
were plotted, figures 4 and 6.Generally, the wear rate increases as thelead increases and reaches maximum value65 N load. this can be interpreted byreferring to the equation used to calculatethe wear rate. Adverse relation betweencontact area and wear rate is shown, as aresult of increase of contact area due todeep cutting. This cause the wear rate todecrease according to eq (1).
W
R
=
W / A
c
(1)
Whereas:W
R
is wear rate,
W is the loss inwheel weight and A
c
:is the contact area.For further time increment rapid decrease inwear rate was noticed indicating goodperformance at medium to high load 45 and65 N. consequently, the depth of cutincreases as shown in Figure 5. However, atlow load ,25N,
wear rate shows differentbehavior, this may be due to detachment of diamond particles and deposited particles at lowload. It was postulated that the position of abrasives might be changed as the loadincreases [6]. However if the threshold of bondstrength is not exceeded, the bonding materialwill not break. Therefore, abrasives particlestays intact. As a result wear rate decrease anddepth of cut increases [6].
In the case of wear of stainless steel cuttingwheel coated with Al-Si alloy as bondingagent with diamond as an abrasive.Generally, the wear rate initially increasedas the time increased until it reachedmaximum value depends on operatingcondition (applied load). this fact is due towear of coatings on the very sharp edge of the wheel. It appears that the behavior of wear rate at the cutting edge is the similarfor all loads. This fact can also be explainedas bonding bridge failure [6]. Duringcoating implementation and at the instant of particles impact on the substrate, it isbelieved that the sputtering of particles ismore pronounced at the cutting edgecompare with areas on the substrate.Therefore the bonding bridges on thesubstrate are stronger than bonding bridgeat the tip of cutting edges.As the time and load increase the wearrate decreased due to good adhesion of hardparticles toward the plate area inside formedium, 45 N, to high, 65N, load.Referring to Figure 5 increase of depth of cut at the same period was observed
.
0510152025050
TIME (min)
   W   E   A   R   R   A   T   E   (  m  g .  c  m
  -   2
   )
load =25 Nload =45 Nload =65 N
Figure 4 wear rater of stainless steel wheelcoated with Al-Si-diamond against timewith three different loads and constant 6.5(cm.sec
-1
)

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