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Answer Optical Technology Assignment

Answer Optical Technology Assignment

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Published by Saket
An introductory detail of the topics – subtopics defined as well as designed throughout the syllabus with possible explanatory diagrams and pictorial representation.
An introductory detail of the topics – subtopics defined as well as designed throughout the syllabus with possible explanatory diagrams and pictorial representation.

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Published by: Saket on Nov 19, 2010
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 Amity Institute Of InformationTechnology Saket Kumar Pathak M.Sc. NT & M
Optical Technology 
 An introductory detail of the topics – subtopics defined as well as designed throughout thesyllabus with possible explanatory diagrams and pictorial representation.
Optical Fiber Communication
Q. No. 1.Difference Between LEDs and LasersLEDsLasers
LEDs are semiconductor diode thatconverts applied voltage to light and is usedin lamps and digital displays.Laser diode is formed from a p-n junctionand powered by injected electric current.LEDs are made from compoundsemiconductor materials such as galliumarsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP),gallium arsenide-phosphide (GaAsP).The former devices are sometimes referredto as Injection Laser Diodes A LED is basically just a specialized type of P-N junction diode, made from a thin chipof fairly heavily doped semiconductormaterial.Laser diodes form a subset of the largerclassification of semiconductor p-n junction diodes.The color of the light emitted, inthe case is visible light.The key parameter for a laser diode is thethreshold current, which is the forwardcurrent level where lasing actually begins tooccur.LEDs are intended to operate only inforward conduction mode, and should not be subjected to reverse voltage. Another important parameter is the ratedlight output, which is the highestrecommended light output level for reliablecontinuous operation.LEDs light output isn’t coherent, it iscomparatively high in noise and hence notsuitable for use as a carrier for datacommunications.Laser’s light output is coherent; it is very low in noise and also more suitable for useas a carrier for data communications.The bandwidth also tends to be widerthan Lasers, making them not suitablefor optical systems. Although most of the laser diodes used inelectronic equipment are capable of causing damage to a human or animal eye,and particularly to its light-sensitive retina. An LED is often small in area (less than1 mm
), and integrated optical componentsmay be used to shape its radiation pattern.Infra-red (IR) lasers are especially capableof causing eye damage, because their lightis not visible.LEDs present many advantagesaslower energy consumption, longerlifetime, smaller size, faster switching, and greaterdurability and reliability. A laser diode is alaserwhere the activemedium is asemiconductorsimilar to thatfound in alight-emitting diode.Light-emitting diodes or LEDs are now  very widely used in almost every area of electronics, mainly as indicator and display devices in effect, solid state lamps. A laser diode is formed by dopinga very thin layer on the surface of a crystal wafer.
Amity Institute Of TechnologyPage 2
Optical Fiber Communication
Q. No. 2.Structures of LEDs and Differences
LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)
To achieve a high radiance and high quantum efficiency, the LED structure must providea means of confining the charge carriers and the stimulated optical emission to the activeregion of the “pn junction” where radiative recombination takes place.To achieve carrier and optical confinement, LED configurations such as “Homojunctions”and “Double Heterojunctions” have been widely investigated. The most effective of thesepredominantly in use at this time; is the configuration referred as “DoubleHeterojunctions”.Homojunction LED:
Nonradiative recombination due to surface states
Self-absorption with a thick p-layer
Recombination not confirnedThe processes occurring in a junction LED can be divided into three stages. The 1
is theexcitation or injection process, in which the energy of carrier is raised by forward biasinjection. Next is the recombination process, during which most of these carriers give uptheir excess energy photons. Finally, the generated photons must leave the semiconductorand provide the desired optical stimulus to the eye or produce a photocurrent in a
Amity Institute Of TechnologyPage 3

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