Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
3Activity

Table Of Contents

f) Overcomingandhandlingobjectives
g) Closing
h) FollowupandMaintenance
Typesof personal selling
a) Negotiations:
The Principled-Negotiation Approach to Bargaining In a research program
1. Separate the people from the Problem: Because people are involved in the
2. Focus on Interests, Not Positions: The difference between positions and
ClassicBargainingTactics
Need(or problem) solution purchase satisfaction
2.2 Thediagramshowingtherelativeimportanceof personal sellingin
consumer marketsandindustrial markets
Salesforcestructures
Alternativestructuresfor thesalesforce
Territorial StructuredSalesforce
b)Product structuredsalesforce: -
c)Market structuredsalesforce: -
d) Complexsalesforcestructures: -
Differencebetweenpersonal sellingandAdvertising
1.13.Salespositionsinour economycoveredbypersonal salesmen
1.14.Thevarietyof sellingstylesandbuyingstyles
High
Peopleoriented
PushtheProduct oriented
1.15.DIVERSITY OF PERSONEL-SELLING SITUATIONS
1.16.TYPESOF PERSONAL-SELLING OBJECTIVES
1.18.SOME IMPORTANT TERMS
Market Potential
SalesPotential
SalesForecast
1.17FigureshowingPersonal Sellingaspart of thepromotional Program
1.19.ANALYZING MARKET POTENTIAL
Market Identification
Market motivation
Analysisof Market Potential
1.20.MARKET INDEXES
1.21.SALESPOTENTIAL AND SALESFORECASTING
1.22.SALESFORECASTING METHODS
a. Juryof ExecutiveOpinion
c. Poll of SalesForceOpinion
d. Projectionof past sales
Thisyear’ssales
Next year’ssales= thisyear’ssales x
Last year’ssales
Next year’ssales= a (thisyear’ssales) + (1-a) (thisyear’sforecast)
(0.30)(320) +(0.7) (350) = 341unitsof products
S= R + N
(It + 3Ct) Pt
Stc = Yt – yt +Yt Ht (0.03–0.0157) -0.0000283yt
1.22. CONVERTING INDUSTRY FORECAST TO COMPANY SALES
FORECAST
1.23.DERIVATIONOFASLAESVOLUMEOBJECTIVE
EVELUATION OF FORECASTS
1.24.Direct Marketing
Marketing
1.26.Major Toolsof Direct Marketing
a. CatalogMarketing
b.Direct –MailMarketing:
c. TeleMarketing
d. Televisiondirect responsemarketing
f. Electronicshopping
g.Kiosk shopping
1.27.TheDevelopment of IntegratedDirect Marketing
1.28.DevelopingaDatabaseMarketingSystem
1.29.Major DecisionsinDirect Marketing
4. TESTING DIRECT-MARKETING ELEMENTS v One of the great
5. MEASURING THE CAMPAIGN’SSUCCESSv By adding up the planned
1.30.IssuesintheUseof Direct Marketing
1.31.RelationshipMarketing
Intext questions
Summary
References
SALESFORCE COMPENSATION
Learningobjectives
1.Definitiononsalesforcecompensation
2.Variousmethodsof compensation
3.Choosingthebest compensationfor salesforce
TYPESOF SALESFORCE COMPENSATION
TOTAL COMPENSATION
CHOOSIING THE CORRECT MIX BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND
FIXED PAY
SALARY PLANSVERSUSCOMMISSION PLANS
BONUSES
COMBINATION PLANS
EXPENSESREIMBURSEMENT
FRIENGE BENEFITS
INDIVIDUAL WRITTEN EXPENSE PLANS
Questions
SALESFORCE TRAINING
Introduction:
Communication–ahumandiscipline:
Communication: themainpreoccupationintheeraof information
Communication: compulsoryfor team-orientedthinkingandhandling
Pre-call Activities:
KeyPoints:
BackgroundReading:
Whoishe?
What doeshewant?
What canI offer?
HowshouldI makemyoffer?
What aremyaims?
Mypreparations:
SalesAids:
What aremytargets?
CardIndex:
Aimsof theVisit:
PresentationGoals:
Keyareasof SalesApproach:
OpeningtheSalesCall Statements:
OpeningtheSalescall Statements:
Openprobes
Purposestatement
General benefit statement
Askingfor adviceor information
TheSelling-BuyingProcessandtheGordonModel:
TheSelling- BuyingProcess:
InteractiveListening:
Purpose:
METHODSOF MOTIVATION
1) Salescontest:
2) Conventionandmeetings:
3) Recognitionandhonour:
5) Promotion:
6) Personal Communication:
7) Freedom:
8) TimelyInformation:
TrainingMethods
1.GroupTraining
b) Salesmanual:
UNIT-III
LESSON-3.1
Inthislesson
TheConceptsabout thefollowingwill bediscussed:
INTRODUCTION
Different AuthorsDefinitions
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
SCM Entails
TABLE 1.BDifferencebetweenSupplyChainManagement andLogistics
SCM
Logistics
Need for Physical Distribution
M anagement Conflicts
TOPMANAGEMENT
1.Production
2.MarketingAndSales
3.Finance& Control
Risingcosts
Cost-reduction Opportunities
Physical Distribution asa tool to Marketing
Customer Service
TimeConstraints
Functionsof Physical Distribution
TransportationManagement
Brief description of theseisgivenbelow
Railroads—longdistanceshipping
Air freight—fast but expensive
Trucking—flexibleandgrowing
Pipelines—specializedtransporters
Water carriers—slowbut inexpensive
Intermodal services
Inventory Control
Warehousing
Industrial Packaging
Material Handling
Order Processing
Locational Analysis
Management of Information Flow
TheEnvironment of Physical Distribution
Demand Characteristics
Product Characteristics
1.Valueof theproduct
2.Seasonality of production and perishability
3.Product line
DynamicEnvironment
ThePhysical Distribution Concept: A Total System Perspective
Total Cost Perspective
Trade-offs
Zero Sub-optimization
Total System Perspective(Supply Chain Management)
EXERCISES
LESSON-3.2
ChannelsofDistribution
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
Roleof Marketing Channels
Channel Functions
Information Gathering
Consumer M otivation
Bargaining
Placing Orders
Financing
Risk-bearing
Inventory M anagement
Services
(a) Wholesalers sponsored voluntary chains: Wholesalers organize voluntary
Horizontal M arketing Systems(HM S)
Horizontal MarketingSystemsà CanadianAAà some controlà due to à
M ulti-channel M arketing Systems(M M S)
TheInternet
3. Determining intensity of distribution. The next decision relates to
FACTORSEFFECTING CHOICE OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
Market Considerations
Product Considerations
Middlemen Considerations
1. Services provided by middlemen. Each producer should select
2. Availability of desired middlemen. The middlemen preferred by a
3. Attitude of middlemen towards producer's policies. When
Company Considerations
EXERCISE
UNIT –III
LESSON 3.3
Channel Management
FUNCTIONSOF INTERMEDIARIES
TYPESOF INTERMEDIARIES
Merchant Wholesaler
Brokersand Agents
Manufacturer and Retailer (Branchesand Offices)
Export and Import Distributors
VariablestobeConsidered for SelectingChannel Members
Financial strength of the prospective partner: "financially sound': This
Ordering and payment procedures. The efficiency with which an
REFERENCES
Unit –IV
MANAGING THE CHANNEL MEMBERS
INTRODUCTION:-
FUNCTIONSOF MARKETING CHANNELS:
Fig4.1
MarketingResearch:
Buying:
Promotion:
Consumer Services:
Product Planning:
Pricing:
Distribution:
ARE MARKETING INTERMEDIARIESNEEDED
MANAGING CHANNEL RELATIONSHIPS
DISTRIBUTION INTENSITY
EXCLUSIVE Fineart
PRODUCT ISSUESIN CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
NewProduct PlanningandChannel Management
1) EncouragingChannel Member Input intoNewProduct Planning
2) FosteringChannel Member Acceptanceof NewProducts
3) FittingtheNewProduct intoChannelMember Assortments
4) EducatingChannel Membersabout NewProducts
5) MakingSureNewProductsAreTroubleFree
TheProduct LifeCycleandChannel Management
1) TheIntroductoryStageandChannel Management
2) TheGrowthStageandChannel Management
3) TheMaturityStageandChannel Management
4) TheDeclineStageandChannel Management
StrategicProduct Management andChannelManagement
1) Product DifferentiationandChannel Management
2) Product PositioningandChannelManagement
3) Product LineExpansion/ContractionandChannel Management
4) Product BrandStrategyandChannel Management
5) Product ServiceStrategyandChannel Management
PRICING ISSUESIN CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
Anatomyof Channel PricingStrategy
Guidelinesfor DevelopingEffectiveChannel PricingStrategies
1) Profit Margins
2) Different Classesof Resellers
3) Rival Brands
4) Special Arrangements
5) Conventional NormsinMargins
6) MarginVariationonModels
7) PricePoints
8) Product Variations
Other IssuesinChannel Pricing
1) ExercisingControl inChannel Pricing
2) ChangingPricePolicies
Promotional StrategiesandChannel Member Cooperation
BasicPushPromotional StrategiesinMarketingChannels
1) CooperativeAdvertising
2) Promotional Allowances
3) SlottingFees
4) DisplaysandSellingAids
5) In-storePromotions
6) ContestsandIncentives
7) Special Promotional DealsandMerchandisingCampaigns
“Kinder andGentler” PushPromotionStrategiesinMarketingChannels
1) TrainingPrograms
A) WholesaleLevel TrainingPrograms
B) Retail Level TrainingPrograms
2) QuotaSpecification
3) MissionarySelling
4) TradeShows
LOGISTICSAND CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
Four KeyAreasof InterfacebetweenLogisticsandChannelManagement
1) DefiningLogisticsServiceStandards
2) EvaluatingtheLogisticsProgram
3) SellingtheChannel MembersontheLogisticsProgram
4) MonitoringtheLogisticsSystem
MOTIVATING THE CHANNEL MEMBERS
Motivation:
FindingOut theNeedsandProblemsof Channel Members
1) Approachesfor Learningabout Channel Member NeedsandProblems
OfferingSupport toChannel Members
1) CooperativeArrangements
2) PartnershipsandStrategicAlliances
3) DistributionProgramming
Financial assistance
Non-Financial assistance
ProvidingLeadershiptoMotivateChannel Members
EVALUATING CHANNEL MEMBER PERFORMANCE
FactorsAffectingScopeandFrequencyof Evaluations
1) Degreeof Control
2) Importanceof Channel Members
3) Natureof theProduct
4) Number of Channel Members
PerformanceEvaluationsversusDay-to-DayMonitoring
Channel Member PerformanceAudit
1) DevelopingCriteria
A) SalesPerformance
B) InventoryMaintenance
C) SellingCapabilities
D) Attitudesof ChannelMembers
E) Competition
F) General GrowthProspects
G) Other Criteria
2) ApplyingPerformanceCriteria
A) SeparatePerformanceEvaluations
B) MultipleCriteriaCombinedInformally
C) MultipleCriteriaCombinedFormally
CHANNEL DYNAMICS
VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEMS
TYPESOF VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM
FRANCHISE SYSTEM
Typesof FranchiseSystems
LESSON OUTLINE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
E-EnabledSellingandDistribution
E-Brokers
E-MARKETING
E-MARKETING STRATEGY
1. Personalization
2. Privacy
3. CustomService
4. Community
5. Site
6. Security
7. SalesPromotion
NEED FOR AN E-MARKETING STRATEGY
IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
E-COMMERCE
SIZE OF E-MARKET
Development of E-Commerce
Featuresof E-commerceasachannel of distribution:
Featuresof E-retail
ONLINE RETAILERS
ONLINE RETAILING
DIGITAL PRODUCTS
TANGIBLE PRODUCTS
Featuresof E-retailingasachannel of distribution
SUMMARY
3ELECTRONIC INTERMEDIARIES
Intermediaries
Typesof Intermediaries
DistributionChannel
DistributionChannel Length
Functionsof aDistributionChannel
IntermediaryModels
1. BrokerageModels
3. OnlineAuction
4. Agent Models
a. Agent ModelsRepresentingBuyers
b. Agent ModelsRepresentingSellers
IMPORTANT QUESTIONS:
DISINTERMEDIATION
REINTERMEDIATION
CONCLUSION
LessonOutline
LOGISTICSMANAGEMENT
Framework for SelectingtheOptimumLogisticSystem
Importanceof Physical DistributionManagement
Physical DistributionCosts
InventoryManagement
CustomersServicesLevel
PossibleMeasuresof Customer ServicePerformance
E-ENABLED LOGISTICSMANAGEMENT
RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE (RFID)
RFID TechnologyandTrackingSystems
BusinessOpportunitiesfor TrackinginIndia
Needof IT inSupplyChainIntegration
a) TRANSACTIONAL FUNCTIONS
Contact withBuyers
MarketingPromotionandCommunications
MatchingProduct toBuyer’sNeeds
NegotiatingPrice
b) LOGISTICAL FUNCTIONS
AggregatingProduct
Third-PartyLogistics–OutsourcedLogistics
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Marketing

Marketing

Ratings: (0)|Views: 50 |Likes:
Published by ela_belgia

More info:

Published by: ela_belgia on Nov 20, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/07/2011

pdf

text

original

You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 6 to 9 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 15 to 38 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 44 to 124 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 130 to 180 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 186 to 289 are not shown in this preview.

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
9234444485 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->