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Health Assess - Ch 21 Key Terms

Health Assess - Ch 21 Key Terms

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Published by: Allison Doubek Gibson on Nov 21, 2010
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Health Assessment Ch 21: Abdomen
Key Terms
 Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weightand the food they eat. People with anorexia nervosa attempt tomaintain a weight that's far below normal for their age and height. To prevent weight gain or to continue losing weight, people withanorexia nervosa may starve themselves or exercise excessively. Itsnot about food, it¶s about coping with emotional problems: thinness =self worth. They engage in binging and purging. They also maymisuse laxatives, diuretics, or enemas. Screen any extremely thinteenage girl for this.
 Symptoms:
extreme weight loss, thin appearance, abnormal bloodcounts, fatigue, insomnia, dizziness or fainting, blush discoloration othe fingers, brittle nails, hair that thins breaks or falls out, absence of menstruation, constipation, dry skin, intolerance of cold, irregular heart rhythms, low BP, dehydration, osteoporosis, swelling of thearms or legs.
ascitesDefinition:
free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Occurs with heartfailure, portal hypertension, cirrhosis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, andcancer.
Inspection
: single curve. Everted umbilicus. Bulging flanks whensupine. Taut, glistening skin, recent wt. gain. Increase in abdominalgirth.
Auscultation:
normal bowel sounds over intestines. Diminished over ascitic fluid.
Percussion:
tympany at top where intestines float. Dull over fluid.Produces
 fluid wave
and shifting dullness.
Palpation:
taut skin and increased intraabdominal pressure limit palpation.
borborygmus
A type of hyperactive bowel sound. Hyperperistalsis when you feelyour ³stomach growling.´ Loud, high pitched, rushing, tinklingsound that signals increased motility.
bruit
Turbulent blood flow within a blood vessel. Using firm pressurecheck the aorta, renal arteries, iliac, and femoral arteries, especiallyin people with hypertension. Usually this sound is not heard.
costovertebral angle
The angle formed by the twelfth rib and vertebral column. Locationof the kidneys.
dysphagia
Difficulty swallowing. Occurs with disorders of the throat andesophagus.
epigastric region
A regional description for the area between the costal margins.
fluid wave
Tests for large amounts of ascitic fluid. Stand on the person¶s rightside and place ulnar edge of another examiner¶s hand on the patient¶sabdomen in the midline. Place your left hand on th person¶s rightflank. With your right hand, reach across the abdomen and give theleft flank a firm strike. If ascites if present, the blow will generate afluid wave through the abdomen and you will feel a distinct tap onyour left hand. If the abdomen is distended from gas or adipose tissueyou will feel no change.
hematemesis
Vomiting of blood.

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