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Purposive Construction

Purposive Construction

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Published by: LEX-57 the lex engine on Nov 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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byBob H. Sotiriadis
, Patent & Trademark Agents
Centre CDP Capital1001 Square-Victoria- Bloc E – 8
FloorMontreal, Quebec, Canada H2Z 2B7Tel. (514) 987 6242 - Fax (514) 845 7874www.robic.ca - info@robic.com
This paper analyzes the effect of the decision of the Federal Court of Appealin
O'Hara Manufacturing Ltd.
Eli Lilly & Co.
on the application of thedoctrine of purposive construction in Canadian patent infringement cases.This is because
appears at first blush to limit the rights of the patenteein cases of infringement in substance. It is, however, suggested that
 should be considered in light of the specific set of facts then before the courtand should not be considered as an authority pointing away from thegeneral approach taken by the House of Lords in
Catnic Components Limited 
Hill & Smith Limited 
Indeed Canadian Courts since O'Hara have adoptedthe doctrine of purposive construction in patent infringement cases inaccordance with the
Writing for the Court in
, Lord Diplock criticized the tendency to treattextual infringement and infringement of the "pith and marrow" of aninvention as if they were separate causes of action. He held that a patent
 © LÉGER ROBIC RICHARD/ROBIC, 1996.*Lawyer, Bob H. Sotiriadis is a senior partner in the lawfirm LÉGER ROBIC RICHARD,g.p. and inthe patent and trade-mark agency firm ROBIC, g.p. Published at (1996), 11 IntellectualProperty Journal 111-117. Publication 177.11988), 20 C.P.R. (3d) 342, 18 F.T.R. 177 (F.C.T.D.); revd. (1989), 26 C.P.R. (3d) 1, 23 C.I.P.R. 166,99 N.R. 60, 28 F.T.R. 80n sub nomine
Eli Lilly & Co. v. Novopharm
(F.C.A.).2[1975] 1 F.S.R. 529 (Ch.D.-Interlocutory); (1978), [1978] 4 F.S.R. 405, [1982] R.P.C. 183-197(Ch.D.); affd. in part (1979), [1982] R.P.C. 183-218, [1979] F.S.R. 619 (C.A.); revd. (1980), [1982]R.P.C. 183-237, [1981] F.S.R. 60 (H.L.); (1983) F.S.R. 512 (Ch.D.-Ref.).
specification should be given a purposive construction, rather than a literalone.Much of the application of this doctrine involves establishing whether thestrict compliance with the particular descriptive word or phrase appearing ina claim would have been intended by the patentee to be an essentialrequirement of the invention, so that any variant on the wording of the claimwould fall outside of the monopoly, even though the variant in questionwould have no material effect on the way the claimed invention worked.One of the most important elements of the doctrine therefore requires theCourt, in cases of infringement in substance, to analyze the variant in order toascertain whether it does in fact have a material effect upon the way theinvention works. In
, the House of Lords in this respect vindicated theposition of Lord Reid, who had rendered the minority decision in
C. Van Der Lely N.V.
Banfords Limited 
("hay rake" case).One advantage of the doctrine of purposive construction for a patentee isthat it holds that a patentee's rights may not be frustrated when an elementof the specification which appears to restrict the patentee is found there onlyas an "accident of form".
The principles laid down by Lord Diplock in
were applied by theAppeal Division of the Federal Court of Canada in 1989 in the
.The plaintiff there brought an action for infringement of a patent relating toan improved tablet coating apparatus. The Court of Appeal reversed thedecision of the Trial Division, which had found that the claims of the patenthad been infringed, on the ground that defendant had taken the substanceof the invention claimed, even though its apparatus did not include anexhaust system in the place and manner defined in the claims of the patent.The Court of Appeal applied the test established by Lord Diplock in
by formulating the following question:Would the specification make it obvious to a reader skilled in theart that the description of the patented machine as comprising"an exhaust inlet, flexibly biased against the exterior" of the drumcould not have been intended to exclude machines in which the
3(1960), [1960] R.P.C. 169 (Ch.D.-Patent Infringement); affd. in part (1961), [1961] R.P.C. 296(C.A.); affd. (1962), [1963] R.P.C. 61 (H.L.); (1964), [1964] R.P.C. 54 (C.A.-Patent Amendment);leave to appeal to the House of Lords refused (1964), [1964] R.P.C. 54-83.4Note 1, above.
exhaust was not "flexibly biased against" the drum, but wasmounted in a fixed position as close as possible to the drum?
 The Court of Appeal went on to say that, since the Court in a patentinfringement action, is attempting to divine the intent of the inventor, it wasnot to conclude that strict compliance with a word or phrase used in a claimis not an essential requirement of the invention, unless it is obvious that theinventor knew that a failure to comply with that requirement would have nomaterial effect upon the way the invention worked. The Court then answeredthe question it had posed in the negative, since the claims clearly requiredthat the machine comprise the element missing in Defendant's apparatus.The Court doubted that the inventor realized at the time of his invention thatthe missing element was not necessary and that the machine he inventedwould work just as well if the exhaust was placed in a fixed position. It appearsthat the Court attempted to determine whether the inventor did or did notconsider that the requirement in question was essential to his invention.Furthermore, the Court placed emphasis on what the inventor did or did notknow with respect to the effect of the variant on his invention. It may appearat first blush that the Court placed an obligation on plaintiffs to demonstratethe knowledge of an inventor at the time of invention, with respect to anypotential variant that may be introduced by a potential infringer, but is seemsdoubtful that this was the Court's intent in the light of at least three decisionsrendered after the
decision and especially in the light of wordingfound in the specification of the patent in
. It seems that thepatentee's uphill battle in this case resulted simply from the very wording of hispatent.The court in
set out an important excerpt of the disclosure, which readas follows:
"Positioned at a lower quadrant of the drum's peripheral apertured area is an exhaust inlet...this inlet has a curved surface...which is slightly spaced from the vented peripheral surface...of the drum. A number of rollers...are positioned onopposite sides of the exhaust inlet...and are adapted for sliding contact with the drum. For the purposes of this application theterm "sliding" includes other forms of relative motion contact including rolling contact. It is essential that the exhaust inlet bepositioned adjacent to the leading lower quadrant of the drumwhere the tablets tumble." 
[Our emphasis]
It is suggested that the Court's hands were tied by this clear literal referenceto an essential element, that is, the exact positioning of the exhaust inlet.
526 C.P.R. (3d) at p. 7.6Ibid., p. 3.

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