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Module 1 Space

# Module 1 Space

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HSC summary notes compiled from various sources
HSC summary notes compiled from various sources

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10/15/2013

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HSC Physics Module 1: SpaceSummaryRobert Lee Chin 1
Space:
1. The Earth‟s gravitational field

Define weight as the force on an object due to a gravitational field
Weight is defined as the force of an object due to a gravitational field. It is a vector quantitywith the unit Newton (N). Mathematically, weight can be expressed as
W=mg
, where
m
is themass of the object and
g
is the acceleration due to gravity.
Explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to work done
Consider the work done to move an object from the Earth‟s surface to
a height, h:(where force
gravity
is the weight)(as the displacement over which the work isdone is equal to the height of the lift)Mathematically, W = mgh
Perform an investigation and gather information to determine a value foracceleration due to gravity using pendulum motion or computer assisted technologyand identify reason for possible variations from the value 9.8ms
-2

Investigation: Determining a value for gravity
Aim:
To determine a value for
g
, by observing the motion of a swinging pendulum
Equipment:
-50g mass or large nut to act as pendulum-about 1.2m length of string-a support at least one metre above the ground (e.g. hook on ceiling)-stopwatch-another person to assist
Method:
1/ Adjust the length of the pendulum,
l,
to one metre.2/ Set up equipment as shown:

Work done = force x displacementWork done = force
gravity
x displacementWork done = [mass x gravity] x displacementWork done = [mass x gravity] x height

HSC Physics Module 1: SpaceSummaryRobert Lee Chin 23/ Set pendulum gently by pulling it back 10
˚
from vertical. Starting at the extreme of the motion, time 10 full periods, finishing back at the same side.4/ Divide time by 10 and record in table. Calculate a value for g, using
22
4
g
5/ Repeat steps 3-4 four more times, shortening string by 5cm each time.6/ Calculate an average value for
g,
using all 5 trials
Results:Trial Pendulum length (m) Period (s)
g
(ms
-2
) T
2
1
1.01 2.00 9.9680 4.00
2
0.97 1.93 10.281 3.72
3
0.91 1.97 9.256 3.88
4
0.85 1.89 9.394 3.57
5
0.81 1.88 9.041 3.53
Average
9.59 n/AAlternatively, plot T
2
against
l
on an x-y graph and draw the line of best fit:
T squared (s
2
) length (m)
4 1.013.72 0.973.88 0.913.57 0.853.53 0.810.00 0.00

Time taken for onecomplete swing iscalled the period, T

HSC Physics Module 1: SpaceSummaryRobert Lee Chin 3
Calculate „g‟ using the formula:
π
g
2

s.f.)(3 63.9...62888.9 10.44''
2
g

Discussion:
Variations in
g
were due to reaction time in timing the swing- the accuracy of the stopwatchis much more accurate than reaction time. Also, friction between the string and its attachmentas well as air resistance, which would have slowed the swing of the pendulum.The reliability of the results could be improved by performing multiple trials for the samelength. Also, any results that do not conform with the majority of the results e.g. a value of 7ms
-2
for
g
, should be ignored and the trial repeated until a measurement that conforms tothe majority is obtained.The validity of the experiment could be improved by using an attachment for the string thatwould produce as little friction as possible, without causing the pendulum to swingerratically. The experiment was conducted slightly above sea level (approximately 50metres). While this altitude may not seem like much, it could have has some effect on theresults. Finally, two people were involved with performing the experiment- one to time thependulum and another to let go of the pendulum. It would be better to have only one personto perform both of these steps because there are differences in reaction times when two ormore people are involved..The first method gave a fairly reliable value for g, (9.59ms
-2
), only 0.21ms
-2
less than thepublished value of 9.8ms
-2
. Using the second method gave a slightly more accurate value of 9.63ms
-2
. The second method is more valid because it relies on the line of best fit, whichhelps to rule out any discrepant results

T squared vs L
y = 4.0965x00.511.522.533.544.50 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
length (m)
T   s  q  u  a  r  e   d    (  s  s  q  u  a  r  e   d   )

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