have been subsequently found in trafﬁc patterns, DNA andonline participation (Barabasi, 2003). Meanwhile, statisticiansand social scientists have been busy working on a class of computationally expensive but extremely promising p* modelsthat can decompose a messy and seemingly random socialnetwork into its simple and non-random underlying parts(Wasserman & Pattison, 1996).This new era of network science is coming full circle withthe advent of social software like MySpace and increasedonline participation generally. Social scientists can now an-alyze millions of email messages for general properties of communication or thousands of web log (or blog) links tounderstand the differing cultures of liberals and conservatives.Yet all of this analysis begins with the basic concept of thenetwork.
B. What do we mean by a network?
Simply put, a network is a set of nodes (such as people,organizations, webpages, or nation states) and a set of relations(or ties) between these nodes. Each relation connects two of the nodes.
If the relation is directed, it is referred to as an
, if it is undirected it is referred to as an
. An emailnetwork, for example, is a directed network of senders andreceivers. A social software network, on the other hand, isusually an undirected network of ’friends’. The premise behindthis concept is that networks represent real structures thatcan constrain or enable social action. For example, if thereis only one node connecting two groups, that node is partic-ularly important in information transfer - the node can evenmanipulate information as it passes from one side to the other(Burt, 1992). Moreover, networks also represent intrinsicallyinteresting structures - showing the overall connectivity of anemail network can make the pattern of relationships far moreintelligible to the owner of the inbox (Fisher, 2004).Contrary to postmodern understandings of networks, suchas Latour’s “Actor Network Theory” (Callon & Law, 1997) orDeleuze and Guttari’s “rhizome” (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987),social network analysis works best when all nodes are thesame class of object. For example, since blogs can have morethan one author, one would perform an analysis of blogsby only looking at blogs, and not blog authors or non-blogwebsites. In order to examine more than one type of object(such as bloggers and commenters), one can employ “two-mode analysis”, which comes with its own set of consider-ations. Relations should also be of the same type. If one islinking email addresses, it is not advised to build a network where one relation can stand for “is in A’s address book”and another relation stands for “sends email to A”. Whilethese assumptions simplify social relations to single types of nodes and relations, multiple networks can be superimposedto provide a more holistic picture of the social relationshipsbetween individuals.Depending on the research question, one might requireeither a very large but superﬁcial social network or a series of small but rich networks. The following section highlights three
nodes in the case of a hypergraph, although hypergraphsare rarely used in practice.
kinds of networks, and illustrates how they can be employedto address varying social issues. Sociological insights, bothonline and off, have come from all three.III. N
A. Whole Networks
Whole networks describe the relationships within a clearlydemarcated population. Online examples include an email dis-tribution list, an entire social software community (such as allthe users of MySpace), or all the people who work at a speciﬁcofﬁce, and their online communications. Whole networks arethe most commonly used networks in social network analysis,but this is changing based on the practical demands of theresearcher. Gathering all ties in an ofﬁce is not particularlydifﬁcult, but getting a valid list of all ties on MySpace ispractically impossible, as the list changes so rapidly duringthe process of data collection. Within a whole network, oneasks questions of group structure, speciﬁc network membertypes and examines the networks for particularly prominentindividuals.Online records allow one to collect unobtrusive data onwhole networks, such as all the postings in a newsgroupWebb2001. Work by Smith and colleagues at Microsoft re-search have illustrated that some newsgroups have particularlyprominent individuals who answer questions altruistically,while other groups have a structure that that looks like afree-for-all discussion (Smith, 1999; Fisher, Smith, & Welser,2006).Whole networks can also be gathered actively. Traditionally,this is done with the use of a roster. One can then approacheach member of the population and ask about his or her ties toeveryone else on the roster. Each list is then a row in a matrix(often in a spreadsheet) which can be used to plot arcs fromrespondents to everyone else. Active data collection is usefulwhen assessing subjective states and how individuals perceivethe overall network, whereas unobtrusive data collection isuseful when examining behavioral networks.
B. Personal networks
In whole network analysis, the goal is often to describe thecharacteristics of the network, and ask why certain individualsoccupy a particular location in the network. (E.g., why dopeople always reply to him? Are there multiple subgroupsin this network?) By contrast, personal network analysis iscomparative in nature. One examines the differences in thesize, shape and quality of a number of personal networks.These networks are commonly captured by sampling from apopulation. In this regard they are akin to traditional surveysas one would similarly want a representative (even stratiﬁed)random sample from a population. Each sampled case in thiscontext is referred to as “ego”, and the nodes connected toego are referred to as “alters”. One can either capture a starnetwork (which is merely the ties to ego) or a full personalnetwork (which includes the ties between alters).One can unobtrusively collect personal networks in socialsoftware sites, communication and web pages. In each caseJuly 18, 2007 2 DRAFT