Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Civil Rights 101

Civil Rights 101

Ratings: (0)|Views: 20 |Likes:
A document provided by the Leadership Conference
A document provided by the Leadership Conference

More info:

Published by: BlackWomen's Blueprint on Nov 23, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





CIVIL RIGHTS 101What are Civil Rights?
Civil and political rights are a class of rights and freedoms that protect individuals fromunwarranted action by government and private organizations and individuals and ensureone's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discriminationor repression. As a resident of the United States, you have many rights under the laws.Civil Rights are specifically those rights guaranteed by the Constitution, particularly inthe Bill of Rights and in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. (See alsoConstitution, Bill of Rights, 42 USC § 1983.)
Civil Rights Chronology
1619:A year before the Mayflower,the first 20 African slavesare sold to settlers inVirginia as "indentured servants."1624The first African American child, William Tucker is born in the colony.1775:Abolitionist Thomas Paine'sAfrican Slavery in America published in the Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser.1789:Constitutionadopted; slaves counted as three-fifths of a person for means of representation.1831: Nat Turner leads slave revolt in Virginia.1838:Some 18,000 Cherokees forcibly removed from their land and forced to resettlewest of the Mississippi in a trek that becomes known as the"Trail of Tears." 1848:First Women's Rights Conventionmeeting in Seneca Falls, N.Y., hearsElizabethCady Stantonproposes a constitutional amendment giving women the right tovote.Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgocedes Arizona, Texas, California, New Mexico,Colorado and parts of Utah and Nevada to the United States for $15 million.Article IX guarantees people of Mexican origin "the enjoyment of all the rights of the citizens of the United States according to the principles of the constitution."1856:In early instance of gerrymandering, Democratic party bosses in Los Angeles callspecial convention to consider splitting country in two to increase Anglo politicalinfluence.1857:In theDred Scott decision, Scott, a slave who had lived in a free territory, sues for  his freedom on the grounds his residence on free soil liberates him. The Supreme
Court, citing historical and conventional view of African Americans, rules againsthim, saying African American people are regarded as "so far inferior...that theyhad no rights which the white man was bound to respect." The court also declaresthat slaves were not citizens and had no rights to sue, and that slave owners couldtake their slaves anywhere on the territory and retain title to them.1861:TheCivil War   begins. 1863:January 1, Lincoln signs theEmancipation Proclamation.1865:TheCivil War  ends.Lincoln assassinated (April 15). Freedman's Bureau, to help former slaves, established. Ku Klux Klan organized in Pulaski, Tenn. TheThirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified stating that "neither slaverynor involuntary servitude....shall exist" in the United States.1867:Some 2,000Chinese working on the Central Pacific Railroadstrike for better pay."Mary" is burned to death for her gold by whites in Helena, Mont.1868:Fourteenth Amendment,making African Americans full citizens of the UnitedStates and prohibiting states from denying them equal protection or due process of law, is ratified. Congress reports that 373 freed slaves have been killed by whites.1869:Knights of Labor formed "to uphold the dignity of labor."1870:The Fifteenth Amendment enacted, guaranteeing the right to vote will not bedenied or abridged on account of race. At the same time, however, the first"JimCrow"or segregation law is passed in Tennessee mandating the separation of African Americans from whites on trains, in depots and wharves. In short order,the rest of the South falls into step. By the end of the century, African Americansare banned from white hotels, barber shops, restaurants, theaters and other publicaccommodations. By 1885, most southern states also have laws requiring separateschools.In Wyoming Mrs. Louisa Swain becomesfirst woman to cast a legal ballotin thenation. The Rev. Hiram R. Revels (R-MISS) and Joseph H. Rainey (R-S.C.) becomefirst African Americans to sit in Congress. Union Pacific announces itwill hire Chinese laborers at $32.50 a month rather than pay whites $52.1873:The first community welfare organizations, or "mutualistas"spring up In theSouthwest. Primarily social organizations, they also provide decent burials for  poor Chicanos and address dealing with abusive police or politicians.1875:Congress passes the firstCivil Rights Act, guaranteeing African Americans equalrights in transportation, restaurant/inns, theaters and on juries. The law is struck down in 1883 with the Court majority arguing the Constitution allows Congress toact only on discrimination by government and not that by private citizens.
1876:Sioux and Cheyenne Indians winBattle of Little Big Horn,killing Gen. George Custer. The battle is an outgrowth of continued U.S. violation of the 1868 FortLaramie Treaty as white settlers flock to the sacred Black Hills seeking gold.1877:With the election of Rutherford B. Hayes as President, Reconstruction is brought to an end and most federal troops are withdrawn from the South while thoseremaining do nothing to protect the rights of African Americans. The return of "home rule" to the former secessionist states also means the restoration of whitesupremacy and the beginning of the disenfranchisement and segregation of African Americans.First national strike occurs, aimed at theBaltimore and Ohio Railroad, and ismarked by violence; 19 workers are killed by police and troops in Chicago, ninein Baltimore. Chief Joseph, the revered leader of the Nez Perce tribe surrenders tofederal troops and makes famous comment, "From where the sun now stands, Iwill fight no more forever."1882:Over the veto of President Chester Arthur, Congress passes the Chinese ExclusionActrestricting the immigration of all Chinese laborers for 10 years and requiringChinese to carry identification cards. In 1892, the act is extended for another 10years.1888:Congress passes theScott Actprohibiting resident Chinese laborers who leave theUnited States from returning unless they have family in the country.1890:In theBattle of Wounded Knee,U.S. troops kill 200 Dakota Indian men, women, and children in the last conflict of the so-called "Indian Wars."In Mississippi, a state constitutional convention meets to write a suffrageamendment, including a poll tax and a literacy test designed -successfully- toexclude African Americans from voting. South Carolina follows suit in 1895,Louisiana in 1898. By 1910, African Americans are effectively barred fromvoting by constitutional provisions in North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia,Georgia, and Oklahoma as well.TheWoman Suffrage Amendment is introduced in Congress for the first time but defeated.Treaty with China allows unrestricted immigration of Chinese into the country, primarily as laborers on railroads in the West1892:Congress passes theChinese Exclusion Actprohibiting further Chineseimmigration into the United States for ten years.1896:The Supreme Court, inPlessy v. Ferguson,rules that state laws requiringseparation of the races are within the bounds of the Constitution as long as equalaccommodations are made for African Americans, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine that justifies legal segregation in the South. Justice John

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->