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Rethinking Development- Pain or Gain- 1 of 2

Rethinking Development- Pain or Gain- 1 of 2

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Published by Yanuar Nugroho

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Yanuar Nugroho on Aug 01, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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06/14/2009

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The Jakarta Post, Thursday, May 08, 2003 - OPINION & EDITORIAL
Rethinking development - pain or gain? (Part 1 of 2)
 
Yanuar Nugroho
,Director, The Business Watch Indonesia, Surakarta,yanuar-n@unisosdem.org 
Over the past 30 years, 2 billion people were added to the world's population, mostly indeveloping countries registering substantial gains in human welfare that accompanied theirgrowth. There was a halving of the infant mortality rate in low and middle income countries,from 11 percent of live births to 6 percent, as well as a drop in illiteracy among adults from 47to 25 percent, and for women in particular, from 57 to 32 percent.Real per capita income (in population-weighted 1995 U.S. dollars) rose from $989 in 1980 to$1,354 in 2000.But, some social and environmental trends associated with past development strategies inmost countries are not sustainable. There are still 1.2 billion people living on less than $1 aday; despite the success in reducing this number by at least 200 million in the past twodecades, this population grew dramatically.The average income in the richest 20 countries is 37 times that in the poorest 20, a ratio thathas doubled in the past 40 years, mainly because of lack of growth in the poorest countries.According to the World Bank report in 2002, more than 1 billion people in low- and middle-income countries lack access to safe water, and 2 billion are without adequate sanitation,subjecting them to avoidable disease and premature death.After globalization, development is the word that may be used as a common denominator forthe world's growth and progress. Yet, in Indonesia, it is indeed difficult to gain a perspectiveon development, particularly when the nation is grappling with so many complications in itstransition from a centralized, authoritarian government to a democratic and decentralizedadministration.Many are fixated on the daily turmoil of events, rallies and emotionally charged politicaldebates. Thus, while development has been focused to achieve some progress in reducingpoverty, the inching forward has been painfully slow and uneven.Surely overall policies in development would have an end objective -- people. But, to whatextent do the people benefit from such policies?
Trend of Price Increase 1997-2002 
 
Year
Price of Goods
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
700 1.200 1.000 1.100 1.450 1.633,33Premium Fuel – Rp per liter
1,00 1,71 1,43 1,57 2,07 2,33
380 600 550 575 900 1.316, 67Diesel Oil – Rp per liter
1,00 1,58 1,45 1,51 2,37 3,46
280 350 280 315 400 600Kerosene – Rp per liter
1.00 1,25 1,00 1,13 1,43 2,14
114,29 138,25 141,19 154,40 161,13 258,22Home Electricity up to 450 VA
1,00 1,21 1,24 1,35 1,41 2,26
114,29 138,25 141,19 154,40 196,67 277,67Home Electricity up to 950 VA
1,00 1,21 1,24 1,35 1,72 2,43
2.076,09 2.334,00 2.781,00 2.446,00 2.491,00 2.723,91Rice – Rp per kg
1,00 1,12 1,34 1,18 1,20 1,31

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