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Approximating Small and Large Amplitude Periodic Orbits

Approximating Small and Large Amplitude Periodic Orbits

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Published by: kalmarnagy on Oct 29, 2007
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Approximating Small and Large AmplitudePeriodic Orbits of the Oscillator
x
+
1 + _
x
2
x
= 0
Tamás Kalmár-NagyDepartment of Aerospace Engineering,Texas A&M University,College Station, TX 77845, USAThomas ErneuxUniversité Libre de BruxellesOptique Nonlinéaire ThéoriqueCampus Plaine, C.P. 2311050 Bruxelles, BelgiumMay 27, 2006
Abstract
We show that this oscillator is conservative and derive scaling lawsfor the period for small and large amplitude vibrations. We also con-struct analytical approximations of the periodic orbits and observeexcellent agreement with numerical solutions.
1 Introduction
Beatty and Mickens [1] and later Mickens [5] investigated the nonlinear os-cillator
x
+
1 + _
x
2
x
= 0
(1)1
 
Figure 1: The solution of (1) and (2) is represented in terms of 
z
=
x=A
as afunction of 
t
. The oscillations look nearly harmonic for
A
= 1
(broken line)and square-wave-like for
A
= 5
(full line).2
 
subject to the initial conditions
x
(0) =
A >
0
and
_
x
(0) = 0
:
(2)This oscillator is characterized by a velocity-dependent sti¤ness coe¢cientand depends on only one parameter. Mickens pointed out that while a peri-odic solution exists for all positive
A
and that the period
(
A
)
approacheszero for large
A
[5], simple approximations for the period are only de…nedfor a …nite range of initial amplitudes. For example, the …rst order harmonicbalance approximation results
(
A
) =
4
A
2
(3)and even with more advanced techniques, such as the harmonic balance basedaveraging of Chatterjee (see Eq. (28) of [2]), the problem persists. Theproperties of the oscillator (1) contrasts with those of 
x
+ (1 + _
x
)
x
= 0
(4)which has been studied in the context of the Hopf bifurcation in relaxationoscillations [7] and for Class B laser oscillations [4]. For (4) subject to (2),the period of the oscillations increases monotonically with
A
and the outputconsists of short and intense pulses separated by intervals where
x
is almostzero. This is not the case of (1). As we shall demonstrate in this note, theperiod of the oscillations decreases with
A
and the oscillations are reminiscentof square waves for large
A
(see Figure 1).Our objective is to determine approximations for the small and large
A
limit of the solution of Eq. (1) and (2). To this end, we …rst show that theoscillator is conservative and depends on a single well potential. We thende…ne the period and determine its leading expression for small and large
A
.Our results motivate analytical constructions for small and large amplitudeperiodic solutions directly from Eq. (1).
2 Calculating the period
It will be mathematically convenient to reformulate Eq. (1) with the scaledvariable
z
=
x=A
so that the parameter
A
appears in the di¤erential equationrather than the initial conditions. Speci…cally, we …nd
z
+
1 +
A
2
_
z
2
z
= 0
;
with
z
(0) = 1
;
_
z
(0) = 0
;
(5)3

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