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Dynamics of a Relay Oscillator With Hysteresis

Dynamics of a Relay Oscillator With Hysteresis

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Dynamics of a relay oscillator with hysteresis
Tam´as Kalm´ar-Nagy and Pankaj Wahi
 Abstract
The dynamics of a hysteretic relay oscillator withsinusoidal forcing is studied in this paper. Periodic excitationgives rise to periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic responses. APoincar´e map is introduced to facilitate mathematical analysis.Conditions on the amplitude and frequency of the forcingfor the existence of periodic solutions have been obtained.Families of one-period solutions determined as fixed points of the Poincar´e. These families of one-period solutions representcoexisting subharmonic responses. Stability analysis reveals thatthese solutions can be classified as center or saddle.
I. INTRODUCTIONIn this paper, the dynamics of a hysteretic relay operatorunder periodic excitation is studied. We find conditions forthe existence of periodic solutions and show that infinitelymany subharmonic responses coexist.Relay systems with hysteresis have been attracting increas-ing attention due to applications in a wide range of engineer-ing problems including voltage regulators, DC motors, andservomechanisms [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Relays, ingeneral, have two output branches and the output switchesbetween the branches at certain critical values of the input.Hence, they belong to a general class of piecewise smoothdynamical systems which also include systems with play orbacklash [8], systems with friction [9], systems with impacts[9], [10], and other hybrid systems [11], [12], [13], [14]. Foran ideal relay, switching between the branches occurs at thesame critical input value and the output is a single-valuedfunction of the input. Feedback systems with ideal relayshave been studied in greater detail by Johansson
et al.
anddi Bernardo
et al.
(see [17], [18] and references therein).For a relay with hysteresis the output switches betweenthe branches at different critical values of the input and theoutput is no longer single-valued for inputs between thesetwo critical values [1].Andronov [2] and˚Astr¨om [7] studied the existence andstability of one-period solutions (i.e., solutions having ex-actly two relay switchings per period). Gonc¸alves
et al.
[15], [16] presented a global analysis of relay systems usingLyapunov functions. Periodic solutions in a relay systemwith square-wave excitation was considered by Varigondaand Georgiou [3], while Fleishman [19], and Shaw andHolmes [20] focused on periodic response of piecewise-linear systems under sinusoidal forcing. There is also asimilarity between relay oscillators and the much studied
T. Kalm´ar-Nagy is with the Department of Aerospace Engineer-ing, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.
kalmarnagy@aeromail.tamu.edu
P. Wahi is with the Department of Aerospace Engineering,Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.
wahi@aeromail.tamu.edu
repeated impact of a ball with a sinusoidally vibrating table[10], [21], [22] and its Hamiltonian analog [23].A related class of nonlinear systems involves relay opera-tors with delays in the input. Barton
et al.
[24], Fridman
et al.
[25], and Norbury and Wilson [26] considered first orderdelayed relay systems while Bayer and Heiden [27], Sieber[28], Barton
et al.
[29] and Colombo
et al.
[30] focusedon second order systems. These studies investigate periodicsolutions, their bifurcations, as well as chaotic solutions.In this paper, we focus on the rich dynamics of anindividual relay hysteretic operator in the presence of sinu-soidal forcing. We obtain conditions on the amplitude andfrequency of the forcing for which bounded solutions exist.To facilitate the analysis, we introduce a 2D Poincar´e map.Fixed points of the Poincar´e map correspond to periodicsolutions of the system. There are two families of one-periodsolutions representing coexisting subharmonic responses of the system. On the Poincar´e plane, one fixed point is acenter while the other is a saddle. As the parameters arevaried, the centers and the saddles merge in a saddle-center bifurcation [31], [32] leaving a single family of non-hyperbolic one-period solutions. Chaotic tangles have beenobserved numerically implying the presence of infinitelymany higher-periodic and aperiodic solutions.II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE RELAYOSCILLATORThe equation studied in this work is
¨
x
(
t
)+
[
x
(
t
)] =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
, A
0
, ω >
0
, φ
(
π,π
]
.
(1)Where
A
,
ω
, and
φ
are the amplitude, frequency, and phaseof the forcing, respectively. The hysteretic relay operator
[
x
(
t
)]
(shown in Fig. 1) is defined as
[
x
(
t
)] =
1
, x
(
t
)
0
e,
0
< x
(
t
)
<
11
, x
(
t
)
1
where
e
is
1
or
1
depending on the initial conditions andthe time history of the solution. When
[
x
(
t
)] =
1
, theevolution of the dynamical system is described by
(
) ¨
x
(
t
)
1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
(2)
(
I
) ¨
x
II 
(
t
) + 1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
II 
)
,
(3)where the subscripts are used to differentiate between thetwo subsystems. The complete description of the system alsorequires initial conditions. Without loss of generality, theseinitial conditions can be specified as
x
(0) = 0
,
˙
x
(0) =
v
.
(4)
 
x(t)F[x(t)]+1-1
01
(a)(b)x(t)x(t)01
^
^
^   
       ^
       ^
       ^
IIIIIIIII
HystereticregionHystereticregion
Fig. 1. a) The relay operator with hysteresis. b) Phase portrait of (1) forA=0. Initial conditions are
x
(0) = 0
and
˙
x
(0) = 0
.
Figure 1 (b) shows the phase portrait in
x
(
t
)
and
˙
x
(
t
)
forthe free response of the system (i.e.,
A
= 0
,
see [33]).The dynamics switches between the subsystems when thesolution trajectories intersect
x
(
t
) = 1
from the left or
x
II 
(
t
) = 0
from the right.To make the analysis simpler, time is reset when transitionoccurs between subsystems. To account for this artificialtime-shift, the phase of the forcing is ’updated’ at the switch-ings. Therefore, the evolution of the dynamics is completelyspecified by
¨
x
(
t
)
1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
, x
(0) = 0
,
˙
x
(0) =
v
,t
[0
,t
]
(5)
¨
x
II 
(
t
) + 1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
II 
)
, x
II 
(0) = 1
,
˙
x
II 
(0) =
v
II 
,t
[0
,t
II 
]
.
(6)Here
t
and
t
II 
are the switching times defined implicitlyby
x
(
t
) = 1
and
x
II 
(
t
II 
) = 0
, respectively.III. THE PHASE SPACE AND SOLUTIONSFigure 2 (a) depicts the evolution of solution trajectoriesin
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
)
and
[
x
(
t
)]
. To preserve the uniqueness of solution trajectories in the state space, time
t
is introduced asanother state variable resulting in an extended phase space([8], [10]). Clearly
x
(
t
)
=
{
x
(
t
)
|
x
(
t
)
1
}
and
x
II 
(
t
)
II 
=
{
x
II 
(
t
)
|
x
II 
(
t
)
0
}
. Also,
˙
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
II 
(
t
)
R
and
t
R
+
. The extended phase space is therefore
×
R
×
R
+
II 
×
R
×
R
+
. This space is a proper subset of 
R
3
×{−
1
,
1
}
, where the discrete set
{−
1
,
1
}
is simply therange of 
[
x
(
t
)]
It is again emphasized in Fig. 2 that the system consistsof two distinct subsystems, viz. subsystem
and subsystem
I
. The dynamics of the system switches from subsystem
to subsystem
I
when the solution trajectories intersect thesurface
=
{
(˙
x
(
t
)
,t
)
|
x
(
t
) = 1
}
and from subsystem
I
to subsystem
when they intersect the plane
II 
=
{
(˙
x
II 
(
t
)
,t
)
|
x
II 
(
t
) = 0
}
) as demonstrated in Fig. 2(b).Having described the structure of the phase space, we nowturn our attention to the solutions. The solution of subsystem
can be written in closed form as
x
(
t
) =12
t
2
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
)
t
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
)
x (t)x (t)tx (t)x (t)t
ΙΙΙΙΙΙ
SS
ΙΙΙ
   t  =   0 ,    x   (    t    )  =   0   t  =   0 ,    x   (    t    )  =   1
SS
ΙΙΙ
   t  =   0 ,    x   (    t    )  =   0
 
   t  =   0 ,    x   (    t    )  =   1
x(t)x(t)F[x(t)]F[x(t)] = -1F[x(t)] = 1
   x   (    t    )  =   0   x   (    t    )  =   1
(a)(b)
Fig. 2. (a) Phase space of (1) in
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
)
and
[
x
(
t
)]
.(b) Extendedphase space
(
x
I
(
t
)
,
˙
x
I
(
t
)
,t
)
(
x
II
(
t
)
,
˙
x
II
(
t
)
,t
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
,
(7)
˙
x
(
t
) =
t
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
) +
Aω
sin(
ωt
+
φ
)
.
(8)Similarly, the solution of subsystem
I
is
x
II 
(
t
) = 1
12
t
2
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)
t
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
II 
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
+
φ
II 
)
,
(9)
˙
x
II 
(
t
) =
t
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
) +
Aω
sin(
ωt
+
φ
II 
)
.
(10)Note that the transformation
(
v
,φ
)
(
v
II 
,φ
II 
+
π
)
in(7) and (8) is equivalent to
(
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
))
(1
x
II 
(
t
)
,
˙
x
II 
(
t
))
,
(11)and the substitution
(
v
II 
,φ
II 
)
(
v
,φ
+
π
)
in (9) and(10) leads to
(
x
II 
(
t
)
,
˙
x
II 
(
t
))
(1
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
))
.
(12)Therefore a solution of one subsystem with an initial velocity
v
and initial phase of the forcing
φ
also represents solutiontrajectories of the other subsystem (with the correspondinginitial velocity
v
and initial phase
φ
+
π
). As a consequence,solutions appear in pairs, i.e. if 
(
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
))
is a solution of (1), then so is
(1
x
(
t
)
,
˙
x
(
t
))
.In the next section we compute the switching times thatwill be needed for obtaining the Poincar´e map.
 
IV. SWITCHING TIMESIn order to find the switching time
t
at which transitiontakes place between subsystem
and
I
, the switchingcriterion
x
(
t
) = 1
is substituted into (7) resulting in
12
t
2
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
)
t
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
1 = 0
.
(13)The switching time
t
is the first positive root of (13) andis a function of 
v
and
φ
for fixed
A
and
ω
. Due to thetranscendental nature of the equation numerical solution isrequired. The function
t
(
v
,φ
)
can have discontinuitiesdepending on the parameters
A
and
ω
. The velocity at thetransition (from (8)) is
˙
x
(
t
) =
t
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
) +
Aω
sin(
ωt
+
φ
)
.
(14)The phase of the forcing at the transition is simply
φ
+
ωt
,
mod
2
π.
(15)Similarly, to find the time
t
II 
of the transition from subsys-tem
I
to subsystem
, the switching criterion
x
II 
(
t
II 
) = 0
is substituted into equation (9) to yield
12
t
2
II 
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)
t
II 
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
II 
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
II 
+
φ
II 
) +1 = 0
.
(16)The switching time
t
II 
is the smallest positive root of thisequation. The velocity at the transition is (from (10))
˙
x
II 
(
t
II 
) =
t
II 
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
) +
Aω
sin(
ωt
II 
+
φ
II 
)
(17)and the phase is
φ
II 
+
ωt
II 
,
mod
2
π
.V. POINCAR´E MAPWith the knowledge of the switching times, we are nowin the position to construct a map to effectively study thebehavior of solutions of (1). First, consider the mapping
(˙
x
(0) =
v
,φ
)
(˙
x
(
t
)
,φ
+
ωt
)
of the initial ve-locity and phase to the velocity and phase at the time of the transition from subsystem
to subsystem
I
. Recallthat the initial and final positions are uniquely specified by
x
(0) = 0
and
x
(
t
) = 1
. The final velocity and phaseat the transition ((14) and (15)) will serve as initial velocityand phase for the solution of subsystem
I
, i.e.
v
II 
= ˙
x
(
t
) =
t
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
) +
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)
(18)
φ
II 
=
φ
+
ωt
,
mod
2
π.
(19)Similarly, the final values of velocity and phase of thesolution of subsystem
I
will provide the initial conditionsfor the solution of subsystem
as
v
= ˙
x
II 
(
t
II 
) =
t
II 
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)+
Aω
sin(
φ
)
(20)
φ
=
φ
II 
+
ωt
II 
,
mod
2
π.
(21)Rearranging (18) and (20) yields
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
) =
t
+
v
Aω
sin(
φ
)
(22)
v
Aω
sin(
φ
) =
t
II 
+
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)
.
(23)The form of these expressions motivates the introduction of a new variable
z
=
v
Aω
sin(
φ
)
. Equations (22) and (23)can now be rewritten as
z
II 
=
t
+
z
,
(24)
z
=
t
II 
+
z
II 
(25)where
z
=
v
Aω
sin(
φ
)
and
z
II 
=
v
II 
Aω
sin(
φ
II 
)
.We can now relate initial values of the variables
z,φ
to theirvalues at the switchings by the two maps
Π
,
Π
II 
as
z
II 
φ
II 
= Π
z
φ
=
z
+
t
φ
+
ωt
,
mod
2
π
.
(26)
z
φ
= Π
II 
z
II 
φ
II 
=
z
II 
t
II 
φ
II 
+
ωt
II 
,
mod
2
π
.
(27)To specify the range and domain of these maps, we introducethe Poincar´e surfaces
Σ
=
{
(
z
,φ
)
|
x
(
t
) = 0
}
and
Σ
II 
=
{
(
z
II 
,φ
II 
)
|
x
(
t
) = 1
}
. Clearly,
Π
and
Π
II 
are maps from
Σ
onto
Σ
II 
and from
Σ
II 
onto
Σ
, respectively. ThePoincar´e map (a.k.a. return map)
Π
is now defined as themap of the plane
Σ
onto itself after a pair of switchings.The map
Π
is therefore obtained by composing the two maps
Π
II 
and
Π
as
Π
z
φ
= Π
II 
Π
z
φ
,
(28)Substituting (26) and (27) in the above results in
Π
z
φ
=
z
+
t
(
z
,φ
)
t
II 
(
z
,φ
)
φ
+
ωt
(
z
,φ
) +
ωt
II 
(
z
,φ
)
,
2
π
.
(29)The implicit dependence of the switching times
t
and
t
II 
on
(
z
,φ
)
is also emphasized. With the new variables
z
and
z
II 
introduced in (13) and (16), the switching times
t
and
t
II 
are determined as the first positive roots of 
12
t
2
+
z
t
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
1 = 0
,
(30)
12
t
2
II 
+
z
II 
t
II 
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
II 
)
Aω
2
cos(
ωt
II 
+
φ
II 
) +1 = 0
,
(31)respectively. Substituting for
z
II 
and
φ
II 
from (24) and (19)into (31) results in
12
t
2
II 
+ (
z
+
t
)
t
II 
+
Aω
2
cos(
φ
+
ωt
)
Aω
2
cos(
φ
+
ωt
+
ωt
II 
) +1 = 0
.
(32)Equations (30) and (32) now define the implicit dependenceof 
t
and
t
II 
on
(
z
,φ
)
. As mentioned previously, theswitching times are not necessarily continuous functions of the parameters. However, in this study we consider parameter

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