Dynamics of a relay oscillator with hysteresis
Tam´as Kalm´ar-Nagy and Pankaj Wahi
Abstract
—The dynamics of a hysteretic relay oscillator withsinusoidal forcing is studied in this paper. Periodic excitationgives rise to periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic responses. APoincar´e map is introduced to facilitate mathematical analysis.Conditions on the amplitude and frequency of the forcingfor the existence of periodic solutions have been obtained.Families of one-period solutions determined as ﬁxed points of the Poincar´e. These families of one-period solutions representcoexisting subharmonic responses. Stability analysis reveals thatthese solutions can be classiﬁed as center or saddle.
I. INTRODUCTIONIn this paper, the dynamics of a hysteretic relay operatorunder periodic excitation is studied. We ﬁnd conditions forthe existence of periodic solutions and show that inﬁnitelymany subharmonic responses coexist.Relay systems with hysteresis have been attracting increas-ing attention due to applications in a wide range of engineer-ing problems including voltage regulators, DC motors, andservomechanisms [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Relays, ingeneral, have two output branches and the output switchesbetween the branches at certain critical values of the input.Hence, they belong to a general class of piecewise smoothdynamical systems which also include systems with play orbacklash [8], systems with friction [9], systems with impacts[9], [10], and other hybrid systems [11], [12], [13], [14]. Foran ideal relay, switching between the branches occurs at thesame critical input value and the output is a single-valuedfunction of the input. Feedback systems with ideal relayshave been studied in greater detail by Johansson
et al.
anddi Bernardo
et al.
(see [17], [18] and references therein).For a relay with hysteresis the output switches betweenthe branches at different critical values of the input and theoutput is no longer single-valued for inputs between thesetwo critical values [1].Andronov [2] and˚Astr¨om [7] studied the existence andstability of one-period solutions (i.e., solutions having ex-actly two relay switchings per period). Gonc¸alves
et al.
[15], [16] presented a global analysis of relay systems usingLyapunov functions. Periodic solutions in a relay systemwith square-wave excitation was considered by Varigondaand Georgiou [3], while Fleishman [19], and Shaw andHolmes [20] focused on periodic response of piecewise-linear systems under sinusoidal forcing. There is also asimilarity between relay oscillators and the much studied
T. Kalm´ar-Nagy is with the Department of Aerospace Engineer-ing, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.
kalmarnagy@aeromail.tamu.edu
P. Wahi is with the Department of Aerospace Engineering,Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.
wahi@aeromail.tamu.edu
repeated impact of a ball with a sinusoidally vibrating table[10], [21], [22] and its Hamiltonian analog [23].A related class of nonlinear systems involves relay opera-tors with delays in the input. Barton
et al.
[24], Fridman
et al.
[25], and Norbury and Wilson [26] considered ﬁrst orderdelayed relay systems while Bayer and Heiden [27], Sieber[28], Barton
et al.
[29] and Colombo
et al.
[30] focusedon second order systems. These studies investigate periodicsolutions, their bifurcations, as well as chaotic solutions.In this paper, we focus on the rich dynamics of anindividual relay hysteretic operator in the presence of sinu-soidal forcing. We obtain conditions on the amplitude andfrequency of the forcing for which bounded solutions exist.To facilitate the analysis, we introduce a 2D Poincar´e map.Fixed points of the Poincar´e map correspond to periodicsolutions of the system. There are two families of one-periodsolutions representing coexisting subharmonic responses of the system. On the Poincar´e plane, one ﬁxed point is acenter while the other is a saddle. As the parameters arevaried, the centers and the saddles merge in a saddle-center bifurcation [31], [32] leaving a single family of non-hyperbolic one-period solutions. Chaotic tangles have beenobserved numerically implying the presence of inﬁnitelymany higher-periodic and aperiodic solutions.II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE RELAYOSCILLATORThe equation studied in this work is
¨
x
(
t
)+
F
[
x
(
t
)] =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
)
, A
≥
0
, ω >
0
, φ
∈
(
−
π,π
]
.
(1)Where
A
,
ω
, and
φ
are the amplitude, frequency, and phaseof the forcing, respectively. The hysteretic relay operator
F
[
x
(
t
)]
(shown in Fig. 1) is deﬁned as
F
[
x
(
t
)] =
−
1
, x
(
t
)
≤
0
e,
0
< x
(
t
)
<
11
, x
(
t
)
≥
1
where
e
is
−
1
or
1
depending on the initial conditions andthe time history of the solution. When
F
[
x
(
t
)] =
∓
1
, theevolution of the dynamical system is described by
(
I
) ¨
x
I
(
t
)
−
1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
I
)
(2)
(
II
) ¨
x
II
(
t
) + 1 =
A
cos(
ωt
+
φ
II
)
,
(3)where the subscripts are used to differentiate between thetwo subsystems. The complete description of the system alsorequires initial conditions. Without loss of generality, theseinitial conditions can be speciﬁed as
x
I
(0) = 0
,
˙
x
I
(0) =
v
I
.
(4)