Proceedings of DETC’9917th ASME Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and NoiseSeptember 12-15, 1999, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SUBCRITICALINSTABILITY IN METAL CUTTING
Department of Theoretical and Applied MechanicsCornell UniversityIthaca, New York 14853Email: email@example.com
Jon R. PrattMatthew A. Davies, Michael D. Kennedy
Manufacturing Engineering LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburg, Maryland 20899Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A single-degree-of-freedom dynamic cutting ﬁxture is usedto map out a part of the lobed stability boundary in a simplehigh-speed machining experiment. The experiment reveals thehysteretic nature of the instability. A 1 DOF mechanical modelis derived using parameters identiﬁed from the experiment. Wethen show the existence of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation in thisdelay-differential equation model which corresponds to the ob-served experimental instability. The calculation is based on cen-ter manifold reduction. Then time domain simulation is used tosolve the full nonlinear equation of motion that allows for thetool to leave the workpiece giving excellent agreement with theexperiment.
High amplitude tool vibrations (chatter) detoriate surfaceﬁnish. These vibrations are partly due to delay effects. Becauseof some external disturbances (deviations in the workpiece, jam-ming up of chips) the tool starts a damped oscillation relative tothe workpiece thus making its surface uneven. After one revolu-tion of the workpiecethe chip thickness will vary at the tool. Thecutting force thus depends not only on the current position of thetool and the workpiece but also on a delayed value of the dis-placement. The length of this delay is the time-period
of onerevolution of the workpiece. This is the so-called regenerativeeffect (see, for example Moon (1994), St´ep´an (1989), Tlusty and
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Spacek (1954), Tobias (1965)). The corresponding mathemat-ical model is a delay-differential equation. Recently, there hasbeen increased interest in the subject. The PhD theses of John-son(1996)andFofana(1993),andthepaperofNayfeh,ChinandPratt (1997)presented the analysis of the Hopf bifurcationin dif-ferent models using different methods, like the method of mul-tiple scales, harmonic balance, Floquet Theory (see also Nayfehand Balachandran (1995)) and of course, numerical simulations.Experimental results of Shi and Tobias (1984) clearlyshowed the existence of ’ﬁnite amplitude instability’, that is un-stableperiodicmotionofthetoolarounditsasymptoticallystablepositionrelatedto the stationarycutting. Linear stability analysiscan not account for this regime of conditional stability.A single-degree-of-freedom active cutting ﬁxture is em-ployed to reveal and analyse the hysteretic nature of the lobedstability boundaryin a simple high-speedmachiningexperiment.Speciﬁcally, the seventh stability lobe of a deﬁned cutting pro-cess is mapped using experimental,analytical and computationaltechniques. Then, taking width of cut as a control parameter, thetransition from stable cutting to chatter is observed experimen-tally. The cutting stability is found to possess a substantial hys-teresis. This behavioris predictedbyapplyingnonlinearregener-ativechattertheoryto anempiricalcharacterizationofthecuttingforcedependenceonchipthickness. Simulationsthatincorporateboth the nonlinear cutting force and the multiple-regenerativeef-fect due to the tool leaving the cut are shown to be in excellentagreement with the experiments.1 Copyright
1999 by ASME