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Kalmar-Nagy Mode-Coupled Regenerative Machine Tool Vibrations

Kalmar-Nagy Mode-Coupled Regenerative Machine Tool Vibrations

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Mode-Coupled Regenerative Machine Tool Vibrations
Tamás Kalmár-Nagy
1
, Francis C. Moon
21
United Technologies Research Center, 411 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06108
2
Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Abstract
In this paper a new 3 degree-of-freedom lumped-parameter model for machine tool vibrations is developed andanalyzed. One mode is shown to be stable and decoupled from the other two, and thus the stability of the systemcan be determined by analyzing these two modes. It is shown that this mode-coupled nonconservative cuttingtool model including the regenerative e
ff 
ect (time delay) can produce an instability criteria that admits low-levelor zero chip thickness chatter.
1 Introduction
One of the unsolved problems of metal cutting is the existence of low-level, random-looking (maybe chaotic)vibrations (or pre-chatter dynamics, see Johnson and Moon [17]). Some possible sources of this vibration arethe elasto-plastic separation of the chip from the workpiece and the stick-slip friction of the chip over the tool.Recent papers of Davies and Burns [9], Wiercigroch and Krivtsov [43], Wiercigroch and Budak [41] and Moonand Kalmár-Nagy [27] have addressed some of these issues. Numerous researchers investigated single degree-of-freedom regenerative tool models (Tobias [39], Hanna and Tobias [13], Shi and Tobias [34], Fofana [11], Johnson[18], Nayfeh et al. [28], Kalmár-Nagy et al. [20], Stépán [36], Kalmár-Nagy [21], Stone and Campbell [38], Stépánet al. [37]). Even though the classical model (Tobias [39]) with nonlinear cutting force is quite successful inpredicting the onset of chatter (Kalmár-Nagy et al., [19]), it cannot possibly account for all phenomena displayedin real cutting experiments. Single degree-of-freedom deterministic time-delay models have been insu
cient sofar to explain low-amplitude dynamics below the stability boundary. Also, real tools have multiple degrees of freedom. In addition to horizontal and vertical displacements, tools can twist and bend. Higher degree-of-freedommodels have also been studied in turning, as well as in boring, milling and drilling (Pratt [32], Batzer et al.[2], Balachandran [1], van de Wouw et al. [44]). In this paper we will examine the coupling between multipledegree-of-freedom tool dynamics and the regenerative e
ff 
ect in order to see if this chatter instability criteria willpermit low-level instabilities.Coupled-mode models in aeroelasticity or vehicle dynamics may exhibit so-called ’
utter’ or dynamics insta-bilities (see e.g. Chu and Moon [8]) when there exists a non-conservative force in the problem. One example is thefollower force torsion-beam problem as in Hsu [15]. In the present work we assume that the chip removal forcesrotate with the tool thereby introducing an unsymmetric sti
ff 
ness matrix which can lead to
utter and chatter.Tobias called this mode-coupled chatter. Often this model of chatter is analyzed without the regenerative e
ff 
ect.In this paper we will show that the combination of mode-coupling nonconservative model and a time delay canproduce an instability criteria that admits low-level or zero chip thickness chatter. There is no claim in this paperto having solved the random- or chaotic low level dynamics since only linear stability analysis is presented in thispaper. But the results shown below provide an incentive to extend this model into the nonlinear regime. A dy-namic model with the combination of 2-degree-of-freedom
utter model with time delay may also be applicable toaeroelastic problems in rotating machinery where the
uid forces in the current cycle depend on eddies generatedin the previous cycle. However the focus of this paper is on the physics of cutting dynamics.The structure of the paper is as follows. In Section 2 an overview of the turning operation is given, togetherwith the description of chatter and the regenerative e
ff 
ect. The equations of motion are developed in Section 3.The model parameters are estimated in Section 4. Analysis of the model is performed in Section 5 and conclusionsare drawn in Section 6.
2 Metal Cutting
The most common feature of machining operations (such as turning, milling, and drilling) is the removal of athin layer of material (the chip) from the workpiece using a wedge-shaped tool. They also involve relative motion
1
pp. 129-149, in Guenter Radons and Raimund Neugebauer eds.: Nonlinear Dynamics of ProductionSystems. Wiley-VCH, Berlin, 2004
 
Machined surfaceWorkpiece
 v
 t o o  l
W
Figure 1: Turning
between the workpiece and the tool. In turning the material is removed from a rotating workpiece, as shown inFigure 1.The cylindrical workpiece rotates with constant angular velocity
[rad/s] and the tool is moving along theaxis of the workpiece at a constant rate. The feed
is the longitudinal displacement of the tool per revolution of the workpiece, and thus it is also the nominal chip thickness. The translational speed of the tool is then given by
v
tool
=
2
π
(1)The interaction between the workpiece and the tool gives rise to vibrations. One of the most important sourceof vibrations in a cutting process is the
regenerative e 
 ff 
ect 
. The present cut and the one made one revolutionearlier might overlap, causing chip thickness (and thus cutting force) variations. The associated time delay is thetime-period
τ 
of one revolution of the workpiece
τ 
=2
π
(2)The phenomenon of the large amplitude vibration of the tool is known as
chatter 
. A good description of chatter isgiven by S. A. Tobias [39], one of the pioneers of modern machine tool vibrations research: ’The machining of metalis often accompanied by a violent relative vibration between work and tool which is called the chatter. Chatteris undesirable because of its adverse a
ff 
ects on surface
nish, machining accuracy, and tool life. Furthermore,chatter is also responsible for reducing output because, if no remedy can be found, metal removal rates have tobe lowered until vibration-free performance is obtained.’Johnson [18] summarizes several qualitative features of tool vibration
The tool always appears to vibrate while cutting. The amplitude of the vibration distinguishes chatter fromsmall-amplitude vibrations.
The tool vibration typically has a strong periodic component which approximately coincides with a naturalfrequency of the tool.
The amplitude of the oscillation is typically modulated and often in a random way. The amplitude modu-lation is present in both the chattering and non-chattering cases.Tool vibrations can be categorized as self-excited vibrations (Litak et al. [24], Milisavljevich et al. [25]) orvibrations due to external sources of excitation (such as resonances of the machine structure) and can be periodic,quasiperiodic, chaotic or stochastic (or combinations thereof). A great deal of experimental work has been carriedout in machining to characterize and quantify the dynamics of metal cutting. Recently a number of researchershave provided experimental evidence that tool vibrations in turning may be chaotic (Moon and Abarbanel [26],Bukkapatnam et al. [5], Johnson [18], Berger et al. [3]). Other groups however now disavow the chaos theory forcutting and claim that the vibrations are random noise (Wiercigroch and Cheng [42], Gradišek et al. [12]).
2
 
W
2
i
h
C
F
C
F
T
F
workpiececuttingtool insertmachinedsurfacev
C
Figure 2: Oblique chip formation model
2.1 Oblique Cutting
Although many practical machining processes can adequately be modeled as single degree-of-freedom and orthog-onal, more accurate models demand a chip formation model in which the cutting velocity is not normal to thecutting edge.Figure 2 shows the usual oblique chip formation model, where the inclination angle
i
(measuredbetween the cutting edge and the normal to the cutting velocity in the plane of the machined surface) is not zero,as in orthogonal cutting. The cutting velocity is denoted by
v
, the chip
ow angle is
η
c
, the thickness of theundeformed chip is
, the deformed chip thickness is
2
and the chip width is
w
. The three dimensional cuttingforce acting on the tool insert is decomposed into three mutually orthogonal forces:
,
,
R
. The cuttingforce
is the force in the cutting direction, the thrust force
is the force normal to the cutting directionand machined surface, while the radial force
R
is normal to both
and
. While orthogonal cuting can bemodeled as a 2-dimensional process, oblique cutting is a true three-dimensional plastic
ow problem (Oxley [30]).
3 3 DOF Model of Metal Cutting
Figure 3 shows a tool with a cutting chip (insert) both in undeformed and deformed state of the tool.The three
z
f
yx
a
cutting edge
tool insert
x
z
v
C
Figure 3: 3 DOF metal cutting model3

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