Routing protocols and concepts CCNA 2
1Introduction to routing and packet forwarding1.0.1 Chapter introduction
Today's networks have a significant impact on our lives - changing the way welive, work, and play. Computer networks - and in a larger context the Internet -allow people to communicate, collaborate, and interact in ways they never didbefore. We use the network in a variety of ways, including web applications, IPtelephony, video conferencing, interactive gaming, electronic commerce,education, and more.At the center of the network is the router. Stated simply, a router connects onenetwork to another network. Therefore, the router is responsible for the deliveryof packets across different networks. The destination of the IP packet might be aweb server in another country or an e-mail server on the local area network. It isthe responsibility of the routers to deliver those packets in a timely manner. Theeffectiveness of internetwork communications depends, to a large degree, on theability of routers to forward packets in the most efficient way possible.Routers are now being added to satellites in space. These routers will have theability to route IP traffic between satellites in space in much the same way thatpackets are moved on Earth, thereby reducing delays and offering greaternetworking flexibility. In addition to packet forwarding, a router provides otherservices as well. To meet the demands on today's networks, routers are also usedto:Ensure 24x7 (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) availability. To help guaranteenetwork reachability, routers use alternate paths in case the primary path fails.Provide integrated services of data, video, and voice over wired and wirelessnetworks. Routers use Quality of service (QoS) prioritization of IP packets toensure that real-time traffic, such as voice, video and critical data are notdropped or delayed.Mitigate the impact of worms, viruses, and other attacks on the network bypermitting or denying the forwarding of packets.All of these services are built around the router and its primary responsibility of forwarding packets from one network to the next. It is only because of therouter's ability to route packets between networks that devices on differentnetworks can communicate. This chapter will introduce you to the router, its rolein the networks, its main hardware and software components, and the routingprocess itself.