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ACI Education Bulletin E3-01

ACI Education Bulletin E3-01

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Published by gcroitoru
Concrete is made from a properly proportioned mixture of
hydraulic cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and often,
chemical or mineral admixtures. The most common hydraulic
cement used in construction today is portland cement.
Though other types exist, portland cement is the most abundant.
Concrete is made from a properly proportioned mixture of
hydraulic cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and often,
chemical or mineral admixtures. The most common hydraulic
cement used in construction today is portland cement.
Though other types exist, portland cement is the most abundant.

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Published by: gcroitoru on Nov 25, 2010
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ACI Education Bulletin E3-01. Supersedes E3-83.Copyright
2001, American Concrete Institute.All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by anymeans, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic ormechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduc-tion or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission inwriting is obtained from the copyright proprietors.
The Institute is not responsible for the statements oropinions expressed in its publications. Institute publica-tions are not able to, nor intended to, supplant individualtraining, responsibility, or judgement of the user, or thesupplier, of the information presented.
Developed by Committee E-701Materials for Concrete Construction
ACI Education Bulletin E3-01
TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter 1—Introduction, p. E3-2Chapter 2—Manufacture of portland cement, p. E3-2
2.1—Raw material preparation2.2—Pyroprocessing2.3—Final processing2.4—Quality control
Chapter 3—Properties and characteristics ofcements, p. E3-5
3.1—Compound composition3.2—Types of portland cements3.3—Hydration of portland cements3.4—Cement fineness3.5—Setting behavior3.6—Heat of hydration3.7—Strength development3.8—Sulfate resistance
Chapter 4—Portland cements and theirspecifications, p. E3-8
4.1—Cement types4.1.1—Blended cements4.1.1.1—Portland blast-furnace slag cement4.1.1.2—Slag cement4.1.1.3—Slag-modified portland cement4.1.1.4—Portland-pozzolan cement4.1.1.5—Pozzolan-modified portland cement4.1.2—Expansive cement4.1.3—Other special cements4.1.3.1—White cement4.1.3.2—Water-repellent cement4.1.3.3—Masonry cement4.1.3.4—Mortar cement4.1.3.5—Oil well cement4.1.3.6—Plastic cement4.1.3.7—Rapid setting cement4.2—Performance specification for portland cements
Chapter 5—Standard tests for portlandcement, p. E3-14
5.1—Chemical tests5.2—Physical tests5.2.1—Fineness5.2.2—Setting behavior5.2.3—False set5.2.4—Soundness5.2.5—Heat of hydration5.2.6—Strength tests5.2.7—Air content of mortar5.2.8—Sulfate expansion
Chapter 6—Fly ash and other pozzolans, p. E3-16
6.1—Classification of pozzolans6.2—Fly ash as a cementitious material6.3—Effect of fly ash on fresh concrete
Charles K. NmaiC
David M. Suchorski
Leonard W. BellMorris Skip HuffmanKen RearRick BohanTarek S. KhanRaymundo Rivera-VillarrealDavid A. BurgColin L. LoboJere RoseDarrell ElliotStella Lucie MarusinPaul J. TikalskyJames ErnzenPatrick L. McDowellChristopher H. WrightJames A. FarnyGerald R. MurphyKari L. YuersJose Pablo GarciaNick PeraRobert C. ZellersAlmerigo GiraldiAnthony C. Powers
6.4—Effect of fly ash on hardened concrete6.5—Concrete mixture considerations with fly ash
Chapter 7—Ground granulated blast-furnace slag,p. E3-20
7.1—Classification of ground granulated blast-furnace slag(GGBS)7.2—Ground granulated blast-furnace slag as a cementitiousmaterial7.3—Effects of slag on fresh and hardened concrete
Chapter 8—Silica fume, p. E3-22
8.1—Silica fume production8.2—Silica fume as a cementitious material8.3—Effects of silica fume on fresh and hardened concrete
Chapter 9—Additional factors in the selection anduse of portland cement, p. E3-22
9.1—Uniformity9.1.1—Strength variations9.1.2—Color variations9.2—Handling and storage of cement9.2.1—Cement temperature9.3—Availability
Chapter 10—References, p. E3-23Chapter 11—Related ASTM Standards, p. E3-23Chapter 12—Glossary, p. E3-24CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION
Concrete is made from a properly proportioned mixture of hydraulic cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and often,chemical or mineral admixtures. The most common hydrau-lic cement used in construction today is portland cement.Though other types exist, portland cement is the most abun-dant and the focus of this document. Exceptions are notedotherwise. The successful use of concrete in construction de-pends not only on knowing the right proportions of materialsto use for a particular job, but also, knowing how to select theright materials. This requires a knowledge of the propertiesof each of the materials and understanding the tests used tomeasure those properties.The selection and characterization of hydraulic cementand cementitious mineral admixtures are the subjects of thisbulletin, while aggregates, admixtures, and concrete charac-teristics are discussed in companion volumes. There are sev-eral varieties of hydraulic portland cement, as recognized bythe American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM),which vary in their properties. A hydraulic cement is definedas a cement that sets and hardens by chemical reaction withwater and is capable of doing so underwater. In the followingchapters we will review the composition and properties of the various portland cements, discuss the tests used to eval-uate a cement, and consider how cement properties influencethe performance of the concrete.The name “portland” originates from a trade name used byJoseph Aspdin in 1824 to describe the new cement he patentedthat year in England. He claimed that the artificial stone(concrete) made with his cement was similar in appearanceto portland stone, a high-quality limestone used in construc-tion during that time period. Although portland cement datesfrom Aspdin’s patent in 1824, its roots can be traced back toancient times, where several famous landmarks of the Romanera owe their survival to the cementing qualities of theforerunner to portland cement.The portland cement industry quickly spread in England.By 1890, there was a flourishing export business to the U.S.The fledging U.S. industry founded by David Saylor atCoplay, Pa., in 1871, soon captured the domestic market. U.S.production rose from 60,000 tons per year in 1890, to 1.7 milliontons in 1900, and by 1915 had increased to 15.5 million tons.Today, about 106 million metric tons (118 million tons)of portland cement are used each year in the U.S. Cementmanufactured outside of the U.S. and imported accounts for15 to 25% of the annual U.S. cement usage. In the past,cement production was measured in tons (2000 lb) and nowit is measured in metric tons (1000 kg). A metric ton, ormegagram (Mg), is equal to 1 million grams, and is about10% more than a U.S. ton.This document is an introductory document on the topic of commonly used Cementitious Materials for Concrete. Thisprimer describes the basic uses of these materials. It is targetedat those in the concrete industry not involved in the determi-nation of the specific mixture proportions of concrete or incalculating the behavior properties of the concrete. Students,craftsmen, inspectors, and contractors may find this a valuableintroduction to a complex topic. The document is not intendedto be a state-of-the-art report, users guide, or a technicaldiscussion of past and present research findings on the subject.More detailed information is available in ACI Committeereports ACI 225R, “Guide to the Selection and Use of HydraulicCements,” ACI 232.2R, “Use of Fly Ash in Concrete,”ACI 233R, “Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag as aCementitious Constituent in Concrete,” and ACI 234R,“Guide for the Use of Silica Fume in Concrete.”
Portland cement is a finely ground gray powder chemicallyformed by combining raw materials containing calcium ox-ide (CaO), silica (SiO
), alumina (Al
), and iron oxide(Fe
), heating this mixture to a high temperature, and thengrinding the resulting material, called clinker, with a smallquantity of calcium sulfate (CaSO
).In principle, the manufacture of portland cement is simple.It is made from abundant raw materials. Intimately blendedraw materials, usually limestone and clay, are heated in a kilnto 1400 to 1600 C (2550 to 2900 F), the temperature at whichthese materials chemically interact to form the cementitiouscompounds in portland cement. Considerable attention ispaid to the various stages of processing to maintain goodquality control. This processing requires 60 to 80 separateand continuous operations, the use of a great deal of heavymachinery and equipment, and the consumption of largeamounts of fuel and electrical energy.
Fig. 2.1—New technology in dry-process cement manufacture. (Reproduced from
Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures
 ,13th Edition, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Ill., revised 1992.)

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