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Flexible Pipe

Flexible Pipe

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Published by: raffrizal on Nov 26, 2010
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"Flexible Pipe in Brazilian Ultra-Deep Water Fields – A Proven Solution" by A.Novitsky and S.Sertã, Technip-Coflexip
Authors:Adriano NOVITSKY, Sergio SERTÃ, Technip-Coflexip , Brazil
The paper will present a summary of the main achievements by Technip-Coflexip on Flexible Pipe area andapplied by Petrobras on the development of Brazilian UDW fields in the Campos Basin. A great part of thistechnical development has been done in partnership with Petrobras through Technical CooperationAgreements. It will also present the actual design capabilities available to face the future challenges in deeper waters.In ultra deep water, riser systems must be able to withstand high loads varying in magnitude and nature alongtheir lengths. This means that optimization of the different sections can require the use of different designsand even different types of pipe along the length of the riser.Technical developments have contributed to provide a reliable and effective solution in terms of greater diameter structures for applications in deeper water, mainly the increase of collapse resistance, Kevlar 
 tapes optimization, design optimization with relation to buckling resistance of armor wires and newmathematical models development and validation.These solutions have been developed either through Technical Cooperation Agreements (TCA’s) or projectswith Petrobras, where the “new” structures were designed, manufactured, tested and certified by the BureauVeritas. Some of these developments were a 6” insulated flowline for 2000m WD a 9.12” riser for 1500mWD, and a 12+EC umbilical for 2000m WD.These new flexible pipes designed and manufactured by Technip-Coflexip (formerly CSO, now Technip-Coflexip since October 2001), have been already installed in Roncador and Marlim South fields, setting thenew world record for the deepest application (1890m WD) achieved on May 2002 in Roncador. New design capabilities to tackle water depths down to 3000m, expected in Brazilian future UDWdevelopments, are also included in this paper.
"Flexible Pipe in Brazilian Ultra-Deep Water Fields – A Proven Solution" by A.Novitsky and S.Sertã, Technip-Coflexip
The developments on Brazil’s offshore segment in the last three years were remarkably important for theoffshore world, due to the important achievements observed in technical areas, more specifically on thedevelopment of pipe solutions for UDW applications. Following the development of two major Petrobrasfields localized in the Campos Basin, Roncador and Marlim South, Technip-Coflexip has designed, tested andinstalled Flexible Pipes, proving the fitness of this kind of product to UDW applications.In order to bring these two fields into production, Petrobras has demanded from Flexible Pipes manufacturersthe development of products able to work within the environment condition related to these applications, tosay, Floating Systems (FPSO or Semi-submersible) anchored up to 1500m WD and wells localized up to2000m WD.The development of Flexible Pipe solutions for this demand was carried out either through TechnicalCooperation Agreements between Technip-Coflexip and Petrobras, or by Technip-Coflexip itself, within projects Roncador Phase I and Marlim South Module I.During this development, the main design aspects related to UDW applications as Collapse, Reverse End-capEffect, Lateral Buckling and Thermal Insulation, have been technically scrutinized and re-validated throughqualification tests, simulating the real field conditions seen by the pipes during installation and operation phases.The objective of this paper is to present an overview of all the work that has been carried out either together with Petrobras, or by Technip-Coflexip Brazil, in order to achieve optimized and safe Flexible Pipe solutionsto be applied on the development of these two major Petrobras fields.The paper will also present current status of development of Flexible solutions for the next goal to be pursuedoff-shore Brazil, Roncador phase II, with a floating unit anchored at 1800m WD. New technologiesdeveloped by Technip-Coflexip aimed at going deeper will be also presented.
In order to resist to differential pressures created by hydrostatic external pressures, a Flexible Pipe bears in itsstructure, collapse resistant layers. These layers can be of the type Interlocked Carcass (internal or intermediate) and/or Pressure Armour (Ex. Zeta, Teta, Psi, Flat spiral). They work together against collapseand their dimensioning is done using a validated collapse model. The current model used by Technip-Coflexiphas been calibrated by over 150 collapse tests carried out on different structures of different diameters andstructure layer compositions( type, thickness and materials).During the qualification process for Roncador Phase I flexible pipes (risers at 1500m WD and flowlines at2000m WD), all the collapse tests carried out to qualify the designs were used as well to re-validate the previous Technip-Coflexip’s collapse model within the correspondent range of aplication. Following to theconclusion of this re-validation work, Technip-Coflexip was given by Bureau Veritas in may/2000, a third
"Flexible Pipe in Brazilian Ultra-Deep Water Fields – A Proven Solution" by A.Novitsky and S.Sertã, Technip-Coflexip
 party Certification of the model (Figure 1) which is currently used by the group for designing Flexible Pipesagainst collapse, which is validated within the following range:Internal Diameter: 2.5” to 16”Water Depth: up to 3000mStructure composition: Carcass, Zeta, Teta and Flat SpiralIn addition to the model re-validation, as part of new technological developments for UDW applications,Technip-Coflexip has qualified a new grade of stainless steel
(High strength 304L)
to be used in themanufacturing of Interlocked carcasses which has a higher yield strength, equivalent to Duplex, but at lower cost. This new material, used in some of the pipes supplied for Marlim South project, allowed a reduction oncarcasses thickness, with consequent weight reduction and cost optimization.
Reverse End-cap Effect
In the same way as an internal pressure results in an axial tension on a pipe, when submitted to external pressure, a pipe will see an axial compression (Reverse End-cap Effect). The magnitude of this compressionon a Flexible Pipe is equal to the differential pressure acting on the pipe multiplied by the diameter correspondent to the outermost sealed barrier. In case of an intact external sheath, this diameter is the externaldiameter of the pipe. In case of a damaged external sheath, this diameter is the external diameter of the nextsealed barrier, commonly the pressure sheath for rough bore or the anti-collapse sheath for smooth bore pipes.The layer designed to withstand all the axial loads in a Flexible pipe is the tensile armour. As the tensilearmours are helically applied on the pipe, they tend to move radially when submitted to axial compression.This opening movements of the armours, are restrained by the external hydrostatic pressure acting on theexternal sheath of the pipe. If the external sheath is damaged for any reason, and there is no other mechanicalelement resisting to the radial movement of the armours, they can buckle radially, creating a disorganization
Water depth up to3000mID from2.5” to 16”Figure 1: Collapse model certification

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