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Biomass End User Guide

Biomass End User Guide

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Published by Vagelis Korais

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Published by: Vagelis Korais on Nov 26, 2010
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Biomass heating
A practical guide or potential users
In-depth guide CTG012
Preface 01Executive summary 02
Biomass as a low carbon energy source 02The need or biomass heating 02Biomass uels and heating systems 03Implementing a successul biomass system 03
Part 1 Introduction 07
1.1 What is biomass? 081.2 Why is biomass a renewable and low carbonsource o uel? 081.3 Why use a biomass heating system? 09
Part 2 Technical manual 15
2.1 Biomass uels 162.2 Biomass heating systems 36
Part 3 Implementation guide 49
3.1 Initial assessment 523.2 Detailed easibility 533.3 Procurement and implementation 723.4 Operation and maintenance 80
Glossary 84Appendix A Conversion factors 86Appendix B Basic calculations 88
The Carbon Trust would like to acknowledge the support and input o the ollowing organisations and individualsin the preparation o this guide:Biomass Energy Centre, Black & Veatch Ltd., Buro Happold Ltd., Peter Coleman (AEAT Ltd.), Department o Energyand Climate Change, Econergy Ltd., Forest Fuels Ltd., Forestry Commission, Andy Hall and Geo Hogan (ForestryCommission), Anthony Haywood (Cwm Rhonda NHS Trust), Imperative Energy Ltd., Invest Northern Ireland,Richard Landen, Ali Nicol, Walter Poetsch (BSRIA), RegenSW, Gideon Richards (CWP Ltd.), Andrew Russell (MerciaEnergy), Scottish Government, South West o England Regional Development Agency, Daniel Sullivan (OptimumConsulting), Welsh Assembly Government and Wood Energy Ltd.
Biomass heating: A practical guide or potential usersRecognising the potential impact o biomass heatingin this range or commercial and industrial applications,the Carbon Trust launched the Biomass Heat Accelerator(BHA) in 2006. By working with existing biomass heatingprojects across the UK, the BHA has identied that a lacko customer knowledge and understanding o biomassheating technology is a signicant barrier to wider uptake.This guide, prepared with the assistance o Black& Veatch Ltd., is the rst major publication rom theBiomass Heat Accelerator and is intended to providepractical guidance to businesses and public sectororganisations considering using biomass as an alternativesource o heating or space, hot water and/or processheat. The guide ocuses on existing, conventionalbiomass combustion equipment that uses solid uelssuch as wood chips, pelletised biomass uels and straw.However, much o the inormation in this guide will alsobe o relevance to those involved with other types obiomass projects (e.g. biomass CHP schemes).The rst section o the guide introduces the concepto biomass as a low carbon source o uel and the keybenets o its use. It also covers some o the high-levelpolicy and market aspects o biomass use in the EU andthe UK.The second section provides a detailed technicaloverview o the properties o biomass uels and typicalbiomass heating equipment.The third section contains a process guide coveringdetails o the steps required to take a biomass systemrom initial concept to ull implementation. Althoughthis is not intended to be denitive, and individualcircumstances and projects will vary, the section isintended to help potential site owners approach suchprojects in a logical, structured manner.The inormation and processes laid out in this guide willalso help organisations adopt ‘best practice’ approachesand avoid common errors when installing biomassheating systems. The guide should help users to design,procure, implement and operate successul, cost-eectivebiomass heating solutions and achieve signicantcarbon savings.Throughout this guide, the term ‘site owner’ is usedto mean an individual or organisation consideringimplementing a biomass heating system at a specicsite. However, the guide will also interest projectdevelopers, energy managers, those acting on behalo clients to help them speciy and procure biomassheating systems or other interested stakeholders suchas government bodies.
The Biomass Heat Accelerator
The Biomass Heat Accelerator is one o theCarbon Trust’s Technology Acceleration projectswhich aims to accelerate the uptake o this lowcarbon source o energy.To achieve this, the Biomass Heat Accelerator isworking with a range o the UK’s leading installersand manuacturers o biomass heating equipmentto reduce the total cost o projects. The BiomassHeat Accelerator is also working to reduce risksin the uel supply chain through quality assuranceand inormation provision.More broadly the aim o the project is to increaseawareness and understanding o biomass heatingtechnology amongst the customer base as a lacko this presently restricts wider market uptake.Visit: www.carbontrust.co.uk/biomass or moreinormation on the Biomass Heat Accelerator.
In 2005, the Carbon Trust’s Biomass Sector Review
highlighted the signifcantpotential o biomass heating in the UK. It showed that carbon savings o up to20 million tonnes o CO
per year could be achieved using UK biomass resourcesalone. It also identifed that using biomass or heating typically gives the mostcost-eective carbon savings o all uses o biomass and that this is particularlythe case or small-to-medium scale applications (100 kW

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