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Chapter 1 Wave

# Chapter 1 Wave

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01/13/2012

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Understanding Waves
1.1 Understanding WavesThe Nature Of Waves* There have four various types of waves:a) Sea wavesb) Soundc) Lightd) Electromagnetic waves* A wave is a travelling distrurbance from a vibrating or oscillatingsource. As a wave travels, it carries energy along with it in the directionof its propagatio* There are two basic types of waves, namely the transverse waves andthe longitudinal waves.* A transverse wave is a wave in which the particles of the mediumoscillate in the direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wavemoves. Examples of transverse are water waves and electromagneticwaves.* A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the particles of the mediumoscillate in the direction parallel to the direction in which the wave moves.An example of longitudinal waves is sound waves Wavefronts* Figure above shows the circular and plane wavefronts of water wavesrespectively.

* A wave front is an imaginary line that joins all identical points on awave.* The direction of propagation of a wave is perpendicular to the wavefrontOscilating SystemsAn oscilating system refers to a system that undergoes a periodic to-and-fro movement. Figure below shows a simple pendulum, an example of oscilating system:* One complete oscilating of a pendulum occurs when the pendulum bobmoves from a position, returns to that position and moving in the samedirection. Figure below shows a pendulum bob complete one oscilation bymoving through position A-B-C-B-A

* The amplitude , a of an oscilation is the maximum displacement from the mean position.* The period, T of the oscilation is the maximum displacement from the mean position.* The frequency, f of the oscilation is the number of complete oscilations made in onesecond. The SI unit for frequency is hertz (Hz)Displacement-time Graph* Figure above shows an oscillating pendulum and its corresponding displacement-timegraph* The displacement-time graph show that a wave is a series of repetitive cycle. The period, Tis the time taken for one complete cycle.* The amplitude, a is represented by the height of the crest of the graph.* The amplitude, a and the wavelength, l of the wave are shown in figure above. Thewavelength, l is the horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on thewave.Wave Speed* Frequency, f =5Hz. Therefore, the wave moves with 5 complete wavelengths in 1 second.* Wavelength, l = 0.2 m. Therefore, the wave moves 5x 0.2 = 1.0m in 1 second
Waves >> Understanding Waves_Note 3

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