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2II an Optical Method of Strain Measurement in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

2II an Optical Method of Strain Measurement in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

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Published by: cesamav on Nov 26, 2010
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05/02/2012

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An Optical Method of Strain Measurement in theSplit Hopkinson Pressure Bar
Steven David Swantek Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityin partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Master of ScienceinMechanical Engineering
Dr. Alfred L. Wicks, ChairmanDr. William L. SaundersMr. Leonard T. Wilson, NSWCDDAugust 3, 2000Blacksburg, VirginiaKeywords: Hopkinson Bar, Kolsky Bar, High Strain Rate, Laser, Impact Testing,Material Testing, Dispersion, NSWCDD
 
An Optical Method of Strain Measurement in theSplit Hopkinson Pressure Bar
Steven David Swantek (ABSTRACT)The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) continues to be one of the most commonmethods of testing materials at medium rates of strain. Elevated rates of strain, such asthose found in impact and explosive applications, have been shown to induce phenomenasuch as strain hardening and phase transitions that can significantly affect the strength of most materials [14]. Due to its relative simplicity and robustness, the SHPB remains oneof the preferred platforms for evaluating mechanical properties of materials at rates of strain up to approximately 10
4
in/in-s (s
-1
). At the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), research has been conducted in which a semiconductor laser diode has been used to measure the radial strain of a plastically deformingcylindrical test specimen in the SHPB.The SHPB consists of two long, slender cylindrical bars, denoted input and output bars,that “sandwich” a cylindrical test specimen. Utilizing a high-pressure gas gun, a thirdcylindrical steel bar, known as the striker bar, is fired at the input bar, causing acompressive stress wave to travel through the input bar to the input bar - test specimeninterface. At this interface, a portion of the stress wave propagates through the testspecimen while the remainder of the pulse reflects back through the input bar as a tensilestress wave. The non-reflected portion of the stress pulse transmits through the testspecimen and into the output bar causing the specimen to deform both elastically and plastically. Strain gages mounted to the input and output pressure bars measure both theincident, transmitted and reflected pulses. Specimen stress can be calculated using the
 
 ii
transmitted strain signal while specimen strain and strain rate can be computed using thereflected strain pulse.In order to measure the specimen strain directly, a 670-nm wavelength semiconductor laser diode was affixed to the SHPB such that a vertical line of light approximately 250micrometer (µm) wide was generated across the diameter of the test specimen. Acollector lens located aft of the specimen was positioned to collate the light not occluded by the diameter of the specimen and refocus the light to be collected by a 25 MHz photodetector. Thus, changes in specimen diameter due to the impact event would resultin more light being occluded by the specimen and less spectral energy being collected bythe photodetector. The light collected by the photodetector is then converted to a voltageoutput before being recorded by a digital storage oscilloscope. With a known voltage-to-diameter calibration relationship, medium strain rate compressive tests were conducted tocompare the optically measured strain results with the data gathered with the existingstrain gages.It was found that the optical measurement system provided increased bandwidth andgreater resolution than the conventional strain gage instrumentation while generatingstrain and strain rate results within 6.7% of corresponding strain gage data. Thisincreased bandwidth and resolution allows the identification of both the elastic and plastic behavior of the specimen. In addition, the loading and unloading of the specimencan be clearly seen in the optical strain signal. These phenomena are evident in the peak diameter and strain achieved by the specimen, data not previously available with straingage instrumentation. The plastic modulus, the theoretical relationship between the stressand strain in the plastic regime, also exhibits a significant increase in magnitude due tothis ability to measure peak rather than average strain. Finally, by ridding the experimentof the input bar strain gage, input bar dispersion and the electrical and mechanical errorsassociated with the input bar strain gage were nullified. These conclusions will bevalidated through the presentation of several sets of experimental data correlated to datagathered previously.

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