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STATCOM Simulation Model to Improve Voltage Sag Due to Starting of High Power Induction Motor

STATCOM Simulation Model to Improve Voltage Sag Due to Starting of High Power Induction Motor

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Published by JAYESH
this paper revels the capability of STATCOM to compoensate reactive power to the system when the voltage sag occurs
this paper revels the capability of STATCOM to compoensate reactive power to the system when the voltage sag occurs

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Published by: JAYESH on Nov 27, 2010
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National Power
&
Energy Conference
(PECon)
2004
Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia148
A
STATCOM
Simulation
Model
to
Improve
Voltage
Sag
Due
to
Starting
of
High
Power
Induction Motor
A.
F
.
Huweg,
S.
M.
Bashi- and
N.Mariun
Abstmct--A
simulation model
of
static synchronouscompensator
(STATCOM)
has
been constructed
on
Matlab/simulink software
to
examine its capability
for
voltage sagmitigation due
to
starting high power
induction
motor.
in
this
paper, the main structure
of
simulink
(STATCOM)
model
is
described briefly. Its capability
to
compensate reactive power to
the
system when the voltage
sag
occurs
was described.
A
phasecontrol thyristor
(SCR)
ased voltage
source
inverter
(VSI)
isemployed
for
this
appIication. The influences
of
the
initialoperation point and
DC
capacitance
are
considered.
The
behavior
of
this
system
during voltage sag caused
by
starting
of
motor loadhas been examined.Simulation result
shows
the fast response and the
STATCOM
capability
for
mitigate voltage sag.
Index
Termr--voltage
sag,
voltage sag mitigation, staticsynchronous compensator, voltage source inverter.
I.
INTRODUCCION
n
the past, equipment used to control indushal process wasmechanical in nature, which was rather tolerant
of
voktagedisturbances. Nowadays,
modern
industrial equipmenttypically uses a large amount of electTonic components, suchas program
logic
control
(PLCs),
adjustable
speed drives
and
optical devices,
which
can be very sensitive
to
such voltagedisturbances.The
must
majority disturbance that causes problems forelectronic equipments
is
voltage sags.Voltage sag
is
defined as
a
decrease between
0.1
and
0.9
p.u.
in
the
m
oltage at the network
fundamental
requency
with
duration from
0.5
cycles
to
few seconds.
This
defrnition
assumes that the
sag
can be defined
by
a magnitude andduration. The duration
is
usually associated
with
the
time
taken
by
he protection system to clear the fault,
Voltage sags
are huge problem for
many
industries
[1,2]
&d
they
have
been
found
especially troublesome because
hey
are
random
events lasting
only
a few cycles.However, they are probably the most pressing power qualityproblem facing many industrial customers today
[33.
Voltage
I
A.
F
.
Huweg,
S.
M.
Bashi
and
N.
Mariun
are
with
Depamnent
of
Electrical
and
Elecmnic
Engineering,
Faculty
of
Engineering,
Univcrsiti
Puh
Malaysia,
43400
Serdang,
Selangor,
Malaysia
(e-mail:
senan@
eng.upm.edu.my).
sags as shown
in
Fig
.1
may
cause
tripping,
productiondisturbances and equipment damages.
The
concern
for
mitigation voltage sag has been gradually increasing due
to
thehuge usage
of
sensitive
electronic
equipment
in
modemindustrial.
Fig.1.
Typical
waveform
of
voltage
sag
This
paper engaged
with
voltage sag caused by inductionmotor. The induction motors are subjected to
the
voltage
sagslow
down, but usually do not
stop
operating, if not tripped bycontactors. Problems can occur due
to
torque oscillations thatcan
be
associated
with
very deep
sags
or
to tripping
of
overcurrent reIays, due
to
the
high
currents drawn
by
the motor.
During
the
voltage sag,aninduction motor siows
down
andrequests higher current. If the sag
is
unbalanced,
it
is
alsosubjected
to
a negative sequence voltage
and
therefore itabsorbs
a
large negative-sequence current component, becausethe negative-sequence impedance
of
the motor
is
usu$y
low.
High
is
also the current
drawn
by the
motor
after
the
voltage
has
recovered, necessary to rebuild the air-gap
flux
and
reaccelerate the machine
[5].
This
phenomenon causesextended
post-fault
sag
with
a
long duration (one
second
or
more)
if
the
motor
load
is
large
with
respect
to
the systemimpedance.
In
[4]
it
has
been
shown
that the induction motorsinfluence
to
the
voltage sags
during
faults.
Some
solution
approached
for
compensation of
voltage
sag
ashunt injection of reactive current and a series injection
of
voltage.
Ambra
Sannino,
et a1
f5],
in
their paper
has
carried
out
research to examine
of
the
operation
of
a series connected
0-7803-8724-4104/$20.00
02004
IEEE.
 
149
reactive power.
If
the amplitude
of
the
STATCOM
outputvoltage
is
increased above
ihe
amplitude
of
the ac
system
voltage, the current
flows
through
the
transrormer reactancefrom the STATCOM
to
the ac system,
and
the devicegcncralcs reactive powcr (capacitivc).
lr
the
atnpIitutlc
or
LhcSTATCOM output voltage is decreased to a level below
Ihat
of
the
ac
system,
then
the
current
flows
kom
tfie
ac
system
tu
tll'e
'
STATCOM,
resulting in the device absorbing reactivepower (inductive). Since tlie STA'I'COM
IS
gerieialiiig/absorbing only reactive power, the output voltage
and
the acsysteni voltage are
in
phase, when neglecting ciicuit
losses.
The current drawn from the STATCOM
is
90'-
shifted withrespect
to
the ac system voltage, and
it
can be leading(generates reactive power)
or
lagging
(absorbs reactivepower).A capacitor
is
used
to
maintain dc voltage
to
the inverter.
An
uticonlrolled rectifier based six
diorlcs
uscd
lo
kccp
lltccapacitor charged
to
the required levels.
B.
PrincipIe
o
reactive
power
control
The principle
of
control
reactive power via STATCOM iswell
known
that the amount
of
type
(capacitive
or
inductive) ofreactive power exchange between the STATCOM and thesystem can
be
adjusted by controlling the magnitude
of
STATCOM output voltage with respect to that
of
syslemvoltage. The reactive power supplied by the STATCOM isgiven by
VSC
for
voltage
sag
mitigation.
Static
series
compensator
SSC
IS
depending
on
a'qutt large dc source.
STAICOM
is
one
of
the available shunt compensationdevices. The STATCOM obtained by
a
voltage sourceconvericr
(VSC),
DC
baiik
charged via
bridgc
rcciilicr andproper control, as shown inFigure2. The proposal
of
S'I'A'I'COM
is
to
injection
reactive
power
io
the
syp~t
whenvoltage
sag
occurs.
Ihe
amount
of
reactive power could becorilrol
by
change firing
angle
of
the
thyristor
01
the DC valuc.This paper investigates in, the performance
of
the
S'I'APCOM
verified
wlien
supplying an induction
motor.
The
aim
of
this
work
is
to develop
STATCOM
module based onthyristor
(SCR)
and studies the compensation capability of thismodule due
to
starting an induction motor.
11.
STATCOM
MODEL
In
general, STATCOM use to generate
or
absorb reactivepower. The active power generation
or
absorption capability
of
the STATCOM
is
normally
used
under
special circumstancessuch as to enhance the steady state and transient voltagecontrol, to improve the
sag
elimination capability.
A.
Bosic
operation
The
basic electronic block of the
STATCOM
is
the voltage-sourced inverter that converts an input dc voltage into a three-phase output voltage at fundamental frequency.In
its
simplest
form,
the STATCOM is made up
of
acoupling transrormer, a voltage-sourced inverter
and
a dccapacitor.
In
this arrangement, the steady-state powerexchange between
the
device and the ac system is mainlyreactive.
A
functional model
of
he
STATCOM
is
shown inFigure
2. 
I
DC Voltage
S0rUre
71
(
Fig.
2.
STA'I'COM
futictionnl
model
Regulating the amplitude
of
the
STATCOM output voltage
controls
the reactive
power
exchange
of
the
STATCOM withtfie ac system.
If
the amplitudes
of
the STATCOM outputvoltage
and
the
ac
system voltage are equal,
the
reactivecurrent
is
zero
and
the
STATCOM does not generatel
absorb
WhereQ
is
the
reactive
power.
VsrAXOhfis
he magnitude
of
STATCOM output voltage.
Vs
s the magnitude
of
system voltage.
X
is
the
equivalent impedance between
STATCOM
and thesystem.
When
Q
is
positive the STATCOM supplies reactive powerto the system. Otherwise, the
STATCOM
absorbs reactivepower from the system.
C.
Sag
mitigation
The application of a
shunt
device such as
a
STATCOM formitigation of voltage sag has some advantages when compared
with
a
series device, as
a
shunt
devices can simultaneously beused for steady-state voltage
control,
load power oscillationdamping and
as
a
back
up
power
source
[6].
ome applications
of
STATCOM
for niitigation voltage
sag
are
preseiilcd in
16
-
81.
D.
im
ulution
Modeling
A three plIase voltage-sourced inverter
is
typically niade
of
six thyristor switches
(SRC)
o
shape
the output waveform and
it
is
the
heart
of
the
STATCOM
compensator. There
are
also
 
six
uncontrolled
switches (diodes)
to
maintain
dc sourceenergy charged. The inverter bridge
and
diodes bridge
are
connected together and connected
to
the grid via
eansfonner
as
show
in
Figure
4.
The
inverter bridge, which
is
the
heart
of
the
STATCOM,
is
typicaliy
injection
current
to
the system
When
the
STATCOM
voltage
is
greater
than
that
of
the system voltage
the
STATCOM
will
supply
VARs
to
the
system
Otherwise,
the
STATCOM
will
absorb
VARS
from
the
system
as
show
in
Figure
3.
m.
SIMULATION
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
The
circuit
shown
in
fig
.4
was implemented
in the
Matlablsimulink software.
The
system
was
operated hvice.Once Without
STATCOM
and the second time
with
the
STATCOM.
In
both
condition
the
motor
started working after
I
v
WT
Absorbs
"Q"
Fig
.3.
Generation
and
absorption
reactive
power
Where
V
is
the
STATCOM
voltage.
VT
s
the
terminal
voltage.
II
Fig.4.
STATCOM
simulation
circuit
0.25
second
of
switching
on
the system
Fig.
5
shows
the
system
RMS
voltage
with
and
without
STATCOM.
Fig.
5
shows
the result obtained
during
voltage sag.
of
76%
in
magnitude
and
0.53
sec
duration Fig 5a shows the
RMS
voltage
at
load
terminal
during
voltage
sag before the
STATCOM
connected to the system
Fig
5b
shows
the
RMS
150
voltage
when
the
STATCOM
was operation
with
the
system.
The
voltage
sag
improvement clearly
shown
in
fig
5b it
is
91%
in
magnitude
and
0.13
sec.
figure
Sa
RMS
voltage without
STATCOM
Figure
6
summarized
the
active
and
the reactive powerinjection by
the
STATCOM
to
the
system when
the
voltagesag event.
The
figure
llustrates the active
and
reactive powersare positive. That
means
the
load absorbs
both
active andreactive power
during
voltage
sag.
bmdmprlholllh8TATCUd
500
do01
I
0
Oi
02
03
D4
0.3
06
0.1
Ob
09
1
Mu.
e
Fig
5a
,Line
voltage
withoutSTATCOM
Bvr~ffhhSTAlCOb!
600,
I
Fig
5b
Line
voltage
with
STATCOM

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