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Nonassociative Octonionic Ternary Gauge Field Theories

Nonassociative Octonionic Ternary Gauge Field Theories

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Published by Kathryn Wilson
16 pages, submitted to the J. Phys. A : Math and Theor.
16 pages, submitted to the J. Phys. A : Math and Theor.

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Published by: Kathryn Wilson on Nov 27, 2010
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Nonassociative Octonionic TernaryGauge Field Theories
Carlos CastroCenter for Theoretical Studies of Physical SystemsClark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia. 30314, perelmanc@hotmail.comNovember, 2010
Abstract
A novel (to our knowledge) nonassociative and noncommutative octo-nionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed that it is basedon a ternary-bracket structure involving the octonion algebra. The ternarybracket was defined earlier by Yamazaki. The field strengths
µν
are givenin terms of the 3-bracket [
B
µ
,B
ν
,
Φ] involving an auxiliary octonionic-valued scalar field Φ = Φ
a
e
a
which plays the role of a ”coupling” func-tion. In the concluding remarks a list of relevant future investigations arebriefly outlined.
Keywords
: Octonions, ternary algebras, Lie 3-algebras, membranes, nonasso-ciative gauge theories, nonassociative geometry.
1 Introduction
Exceptional, Jordan, Division, Clifford, noncommutative and nonassociative al-gebras are deeply related and are essential tools in many aspects in Physics, see[1], [2], [3], [4], [7], [24], [23], for references, among many others. For instance,the large
limit of Exceptional Jordan Matrix models, advanced by [9], fur-nished a Chern-Simons membrane action leading to important connections to
and
theory [10]. It was shown in [22] how one could generalize ordinaryRelativity into an Extended Relativity theory in Clifford spaces, involving poly-vector valued (Clifford-algebra valued) coordinates and fields, where in additionto the speed of light there is also an invariant length scale (set equal to thePlanck scale) in the definition of a generalized metric distance in Clifford spacesencoding, lengths, areas, volumes and hyper-volumes metrics. An overview of the basic features of the Extended Relativity in Clifford spaces can be found in[22].1
 
A Chern-Simons
8
Gauge theory of Gravity was proposed [21] as a unifiedfield theory of a Lanczos-Lovelock Gravitational theory with a
8
GeneralizedYang-Mills field theory and which is defined in the 15
D
boundary of a 16
D
bulkspace. The role of Clifford
Cl
(16) algebras was essential. It was discussed howan
8
Yang-Mills in 8
D
, after a sequence of symmetry breaking processes basedon the
non
compact
forms of the exceptional groups, as follows
8(
24)
7(
5)
×
SU 
(2)
6(
14)
×
SU 
(3)
SO
(8
,
2)
×
(1), furnishes a Conformalgravitational theory in 8
D
based on gauging the non-compact conformal group
SO
(8
,
2) in 8
D
. Upon performing a Kaluza-Klein-Batakis [12] compactificationon
CP 
2
, from 8
D
to 4
D
involving a nontrivial torsion, leads to a ConformalGravity-Yang-Mills unified theory based on the conformal group
SO
(4
,
2) andthe Standard Model group
SU 
(3)
×
SU 
(2)
×
(1) in 4
D
. Other approaches tounification based on Clifford algebras can be found in [13], [16], [14] and on
8
were proposed long ago by [15].A Nonassociative Gauge theory based on the Moufang
7
loop product (nota Lie algebra) has been constructed by [26]. Taking the algebra of octonionswith a unit norm as the Moufang
7
-loop, one reproduces a nonassociativeoctonionic gauge theory which is a generalization of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills gauge theories based on Lie algebras.
BPST 
-like instantons solutionsin
D
= 8 were also found. These solutions represented the physical degreesof freedom of the transverse 8-dimensions of superstring solitons in
D
= 10preserving one and two of the 16 spacetime supersymmetries. Nonassociativedeformations of Yang-Mills Gauge theories involving the left and right bimodulesof the octonionic algebra were presented by [25].Recently, tremendous activity has been launched by the seminal works of Bagger, Lambert and Gustavsson (BLG) [33], [34] who proposed a Chern-Simons type Lagrangian describing the world-volume theory of multiple
2-branes. The original BLG theory requires the algebraic structures of generalizedLie 3-algebras and also of nonassociative algebras. Later developments by [35]provided a 3
D
Chern-Simons matter theory with
= 6 supersymmetry andwith gauge groups
(
)
×
(
),
SU 
(
)
×
SU 
(
). The original constructionof [35] did not require generalized Lie 3-algebras, but it was later realized that itcould be understood as a special class of models based on Hermitian 3-algebras[36], [37]. For more recent developments we refer to [38] and references therein.The novel (to our knowledge) nonassociative octonionic ternary gauge theorydeveloped in this work differs from the nonassociative gauge theories of [26],[25] in many respects, mainly that it is based on a ternary bracket involving theoctonion algebra that was proposed by Yamazaki [28]. It also differs from thework by [33], [34] in that our octonionic-valued gauge fields
B
aµ
e
a
;
a
= 0
,
1
,
2
,....
7are not, and cannot be represented, in terms of matrices
A
µ
=
A
abµ
cdab
=(˜
A
µ
)
cd
, defined in terms of 
cdab
which are the structure constants of the 3-Liealgebra [
t
a
,t
b
,t
c
] =
cdab
t
d
. This construction is not unlike writing the matrices
A
µ
=
A
aµ
bca
= (
A
µ
)
bc
of ordinary Yang-Mills gauge theory in terms of theadjoint representation of the gauge algebra : [
t
a
,t
b
] =
cab
t
c
. Furthermore,our field strengths
µν
are explicitly defined in terms of a 3-bracket [
B
µ
,B
ν
,
Φ]2
 
involving an auxiliary octonionic-valued scalar field Φ = Φ
a
e
a
which plays therole of a ”coupling” function. Whereas the definition of 
µν
by [33], [34] wasbased on the standard commutator of the matrices (˜
A
µ
)
ac
(˜
A
ν
)
cb
(˜
A
ν
)
ac
(˜
A
µ
)
cb
.A thorough discussion of the relevance of ternary and nonassociative struc-tures in Physics has been provided in [27], [5], [6]. The earliest example of nonassociative structures in Physics can be found in Einstein’s special theoryof relativity. Only colinear velocities are commutative and associative, butin general, the addition of non-colinear velocities is non-associative and non-commutative. A putative noncommutative and nonassociative gravity theory forclosed strings probing curved backgrounds with non-vanishing three-form fluxbased on a three-bracket structure were recently discussed by [32] . Nonassocia-tive star product deformations for
D
-brane world volume in curved backgroundswere studied by [31]. The construction relied in the Kontsevich noncommutativeand nonassociative star product.The complexification of ordinary gravity (not to be confused with Hermitian-Kahler geometry ) has been known for a long time. Complex gravity requiresthat
g
µν
=
g
(
µν
)
+
ig
[
µν
]
so that now one has
g
νµ
= (
g
µν
)
, which implies that thediagonal components of the metric
g
z
1
z
1
=
g
z
2
z
2
=
g
˜
z
1
˜
z
1
=
g
˜
z
2
˜
z
2
must be real. Atreatment of a non-Riemannan geometry based on a complex tangent space andinvolving a symmetric
g
(
µν
)
plus antisymmetric
g
[
µν
]
metric component was firstproposed by Einstein-Strauss [8] (and later on by [18] ) in their unified theoryof Electromagentism with gravity by identifying the EM field strength
µν
withthe antisymmetric metric
g
[
µν
]
component.Borchsenius [17] formulated the quaternionic extension of Einstein-Straussunified theory of gravitation with EM by incorporating appropriately the
SU 
(2)Yang-Mills field strength into the degrees of freedom of a quaternionc-valuedmetric. Oliveira and Marques [19] later on provided the Octonionic Gravita-tional extension of Borchsenius theory involving two interacting
SU 
(2) Yang-Mills fields and where the exceptional group
G
2
was realized naturally as theautomorphism group of the octonions.The Octonionic Gravity developed by [19] was extended to Noncommutativeand Nonassociative Spacetime coordinates associated with octonionic-valued co-ordinates and momenta by [20]. The octonionic metric
G
µν
already encompassesthe ordinary spacetime metric
g
µν
, in addition to the Maxwell
(1) and
SU 
(2)Yang-Mills fields such that implements the Kaluza-Klein Grand Unification pro-gram
without
introducing extra spacetime dimensions. The color group
SU 
(3)is a subgroup of the exceptional
G
2
group which is the automorphism groupof the octonion algebra. The flux of the
SU 
(2) Yang-Mills field strength
 
µν
through the area-momentum
 
Σ
µν
in the
internal isospin space
yields correc-tions
O
(1
/M 
2
Planck
) to the energy-momentum dispersion relations without vio-lating Lorentz invariance as it occurs with Hopf algebraic deformations of thePoincare algebra.After this brief preamble we proceed with the main results of this workwhich is the construction, to our knowledge, of a novel nonassociative octonionicternary gauge field theory. We conclude with a few remarks about the plausible3

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