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PID Wall Follower

PID Wall Follower

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This is the documentation for the PID Wall Follower built during the Winter Workshop 2009 at IIT Kharagpur by Technology Robotix Society.
This is the documentation for the PID Wall Follower built during the Winter Workshop 2009 at IIT Kharagpur by Technology Robotix Society.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Nilanjana Bhattacharya on Nov 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/04/2013

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KRAIG Winter Workshop 2009PID WALL FOLLOWERHeads:Pratyush PandeMahtab Singh SoinGroup Members:Samarth MahajanAbhishek ChoudharySayan DeyaPranav RainaShourav ChakravartiKranthi KiranAnanthChaitanyaAkhileshNikhilINTRODUCTIONProblem statement-To develop an autonomous robot which is capable of wall following using PID control.OVERALL DESCRIPTION1.General layout-There are 5 main parts of the bot, namely-1.
 
The rectifier2.
 
Sensory module3.
 
Microcontroller4.
 
Motor driver circuit5. ActuatorsThe rectifier provides a 12 volt DC to the microcontroller unit. The sensors consist of LED-LDR circuits. The microcontroller unit is responsible for the autonomousmaneuvering of the bot and controls the motor driver circuit. Motor driver circuit consistsof an L293D. The motors are the actuators used.2.Software specificationsThe C program operating the microcontroller was written for the wall follower usingCodeVisionAVR.
 
BASICS OF PID-The PID controller algorithm involves three separate parameters; the proportional, theintegral and derivative values. The
 proportional
value determines the reaction to thecurrent error, the
integral
value determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors,and the
derivative
value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the error hasbeen changing. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via acontrol element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heatingelement.Proportional term-The proportional term (sometimes called
gain
) makes a change to the output that isproportional to the current error value. The proportional response can be adjusted bymultiplying the error by a constant
 p
, called the proportional gain.The proportional term is given by:where
P
out
: Proportional term of output
 p
: Proportional gain, a tuning parameter
e
: Error
: Time or instantaneous time (the present)Integral term-The contribution from the integral term (sometimes called
reset 
) is proportional to boththe magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. Summing the instantaneous errorover time (integrating the error) gives the accumulated offset that should have been
 
corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain andadded to the controller output. The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term tothe overall control action is determined by the integral gain,
i
.The integral term is given by:where
 I 
out
: Integral term of output
i
: Integral gain, a tuning parameter
e
: Error
: Time or instantaneous time (the present)
τ
: a dummy integration variableDerivative term-The rate of change of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the errorover time (i.e., its first derivative with respect to time) and multiplying this rate of changeby the derivative gain
. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term(sometimes called
rate
) to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain,
.The derivative term is given by:where
 D
out
: Derivative term of output
: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter
e
: Error
: Time or instantaneous time (the present)The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of thePID controller. Defining
u
(
) as the controller output, the final form of the PID algorithmis:

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