and Sidelobe falloff rate (SLFOR) of these windowfunctions with the variation of the parameter
a
. It isfound that with the adjustment of parameter
a
todifferent values, these window functions can attain amaximum main lobe width and SLFOR.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2gives an overview of the fractional Fourier transform. Anoverview of the window functions and its parameters arediscussed in Section 3. In Sections 4 and 5, the mathematical model of Dirichlet and Generalized ‘‘Hamming’’window functions has been derived using fractionalFourier transformation technique. Experimental resultsare presented in Section 6. The conclusive remarks arepresented in Section 7.
2. The fractional Fourier transform
The Fourier transform (FT) is undoubtedly one of themost valuable and frequently used tools in signal processing and analysis[7–9]. Little need be said of theimportance and ubiquity of the ordinary FT in many areasof science and engineering. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) has been found to have several applications inthe areas of optics and signal processing[10–13]. It alsoleads to the generalization of notion of space (or time) andfrequency domains, which are central concepts of signalprocessing[14–16].The FrFT is a generalization of the conventional FT,which is richer in theory, ﬂexible in application, andimplementation cost is at par with FT. With the advent of FrFT and the related concept, it is seen that the propertiesand applications of the conventional FT are special casesof those of the FrFT. However, in every area where FT andfrequency domain concepts are used, there exists thepotential for generalization and implementation by usingFrFT.The continuoustime fractional Fourier transform of asignal
x
(
t
) is deﬁned via an integral[10]
X
a
ð
u
Þ ¼
Z
1À1
x
ð
t
Þ
K
a
ð
t
,
u
Þ
dt
ð
1
Þ
where the transformation kernel
K
a
(
t
,
u
) of the FrFT isgiven bywhere
a
indicates the rotation angle of the transformedsignal for the FrFT.The FrFT with
a
=
p
/2 corresponds to the conventionalFourier transform, and the one with
a
=0 corresponds tothe identity operator. Also, two successive FrFT’s withangles
a
and
b
are equivalent to a single FrFT with anangle (
a
+
b
). Hence, the properties of the conventionalFourier transform can be obtained by substituting
a
=
p
/2in the properties of FrFT.
3. Window function and its parameters
Window functions are widely used in digital signalprocessing for the applications in signal analysis andestimation, digital ﬁlter design and speech processing[7].In literature many windows have been proposed[8,9]. Thecommon properties of the window functions can besummarized as follows.
They are real, even, nonnegative and timelimited.
Their Fourier transforms have main lobe at the originand side lobes at both sides. These side lobes aredecaying with asymptotic attenuation of
f
À
n
as
f

N
where
n
is an integer[1].The parameters of window functions which are generally used for its evaluation are[17–21]:
Maximum Side Lobe Level (MSLL):
This is the peakripple value of the side lobes and it is evaluated fromthe log magnitude plot of transformed window. This isalso known as selectivity amplitude ratio (SAR).
Selectivity (S/2) or Half Main Lobe Width (HMLW):
This is the frequency at which the Main Lobe drops tothe peak ripple value of the side lobes. For conveniencehalf main lobe width (HMLW) or S/2 is computed.
Sidelobe falloff rate (SLFOR):
This is the asymptoticdecay rate of the side lobe level. This is also calledasymptotic attenuation. Other parameters associatedwith the window functions are Equivalent NoiseBandwidth (ENBW) and Scalloping Losses (SL), whichare out of scope of this paper.Fig. 1presents a plot of the aforementionedparameters for the Dirichlet window function.
K
a
t
,
u
ð Þ ¼
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
1
À
i
cot
ð
a
Þ
2
p
r
exp
it
2
þ
u
2
2
cot
ð
a
ÞÀ
iut
cosec
ð
a
Þ
!
if
a
is not a multiple of
p
,
d
ð
t
À
u
Þ
if
a
is a multiple of
2
p
,
d
ð
t
þ
u
Þ
if
a
þ
p
is a multiple of
2
p
:
8>>>><>>>>:
ð
2
Þ
Fig. 1.
Log magnitude plot of Dirichlet window to illustrate thedeﬁnition of the parameters HMLW (S/2), MSLL (SAR) and SLFOR.
S. Kumar et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 600–606
601