Volume 9 Number 2, December 2010
The International Medical Journal Malaysia
never=1. The practice factor was added and the rangeof the scores was between 6-24 points. Highest pointsindicated highest practice. The cut-off point of at-titude was 12. For the attitude, the following scoringsystem was followed: Convinced about the importanceof seat belt; 1=very weak, 2=weak, 3=strong, 4=verystrong. Insistence on passengers’ use of seat belt;1=never, 2=sometimes, 3=usually, 4=always. Reasonsthat make you use seat belt, 4= I like to comply withregulation, 3=I am convinced of importance of the useof seat belt, 2=seat belt has become compulsory prac-tice, 1= it is civilization phenomenon. Dif
culties youface when you use seat belt, 1= restriction of move-ment, 2= anxiety, 3= forgetfulness/others, 4=no dif-
culties. Effect of using seat belt, 1= no effect on therate of disabilities, 2=reduce rate and complications ofroad traf
c accident, 3=reduce disabilities caused byroad traf
c accident, 4= reduce the incidence of roadtraf
c accidents. Reason for using seat belt, 4=driversare convinced of the importance of using seat belt,3=positive impact of health education conducted bytraf
c road departments, 2=drivers are afraid of pun-ishment, 1= others.The entire attitude factors added and ranged from6-24 points. The cut-off point of both attitude andpractice was 12. For the purpose of this study, highknowledge, positive attitude and good practice wereconsidered desirable attributes of the participantswith higher compliance to road traf
c regulations.Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package forSocial Sciences Software (SPSS) version 13. T-testand ANOVA were performed to analyze the univariateanalysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was usedto assess the predictors’ variables of exposure to roadtraf
The total number of the participants in this study was109 students from the Faculty of Health and Life Sci-ences (FHLS), Management and Science University(MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia. The mean age of the par-ticipant was 20.94±1.89 year, minimum age was 18year and maximum was 26 year. More than half of theparticipants 89 (81.7%) live in the city. The majorityof the students were from the Nursing Department 51(46.8%). About 60 (55%) of the participants had a driv-ing license. However 22 (20.2%) of them owned cars.For experience of driving, the majority of the partici-pants 49 (45%) had no experience, followed 25 (22.9%)had less than or equal to two years of driving experi-ence, then more than two years 35 (32.1%). More thanhalf of the students 70 (64.2%) had not been involvedin road traf
c accident. However 39 (35.7%) had beeninvolved in one or more than one road traf
c accident(Table I).The majority of the participants 85 (78%) mentionedthat they had moderate knowledge about road traf
cregulations and most of them 79 (72.5%) mentionedthat high speed, drivers’ lack of awareness about traf-
c regulation and laws, and drivers’ non-compliancefor road traf
c accident is using handheld mobile tel-ephone while driving. There is increasing evidencethat the use of a handheld mobile telephone whiledriving a motor vehicle increases the risk of a traf
Developing countries account for over 85% of thedeaths, and close to 90% of the disability caused byroad traf
c crashes worldwide.
Also rapidly increas-ing motorization is outpacing the development oftransportation infrastructure. This fact is the primaryreason for the increasing numbers and rates of motorvehicle injuries in developing countries (Jacob et al.2000). Other factors that contribute to the high rateof accident in less developed countries include a highprevalence of old vehicles that often carry many morepeople than they are often designed to carry, lack ofsafety belt, poor road design and maintenance andthe traf
c mix on roads.
In Malaysia, cars are the most common vehicles in-volved in accidents, followed by motorcycles, Lorriesand vans.
According to the Ministry of Health, injuriesincluding road traf
c accidents are the third cause ofadmission and the
fth cause of death in Malaysian.
According to Malaysian Road Safety Council statistics,there are more than ten causes of road accident inMalaysia. The common three causes are speeding(32.8%), careless driving (28.2%) and careless overtak-ing (15.1%). It showed that the driver’s behavior is themain cause of road accidents, contributing to 76.1%of all the causes of road accidents. Other factors aretailgating (driving too closely behind another vehicle)(3.8%) and road condition (3%).
The mandatory seatbelt law was enforced in the early seventies followingthe passing of the seat belt law. No previous studiesare available regarding the knowledge attitude andpractice towards the road traf
c regulation in Malay-sia. Therefore, the objectives of this study were todetermine the knowledge, attitudes and practice andthe factors in
uencing road traf
c accident of univer-sity students in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conducted over
ve months from Feb-ruary to June of the academic year 2009 among thestudents of Management and Science University, ShahAlam, Malaysia. The data was collected through theuse of the questionnaire, which consisted of fourparts, namely, socio-demographic, knowledge, at-titude and practice. The questionnaire contained 27questions. It was adopted from previous study con-ducted in Saudi Arabia.
It was distributed randomlyto the students of the Faculty of Health and Life Sci-ences through the lecturers in different departmentsnamely; Medical Science, Biomedicine and Nursing.This was completed under the direct supervision ofeach lecturer of the departments who returned themto the investigator.The questions were scored and categorized as fol-low: for practice, always=4, usually=3, sometimes=2,