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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Road Traffi c Regulations Among University

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Road Traffi c Regulations Among University

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Published by Karim Al-Jashamy
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Road Traffi c Regulations Among University
Students, Malaysia
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Road Traffi c Regulations Among University
Students, Malaysia

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Published by: Karim Al-Jashamy on Nov 28, 2010
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 OI   GI  I   C 
 
Volume 9 Number 2, December 2010
29
were associated with numerous problems each ofwhich needed to be addressed separately.
5,6
Humans,vehicle and environmental factors play roles before,during and after the accident event. Human error isestimated to account for between 64 and 95% of allcauses of traf
c crashes in developing countries.
7
Reported from developed nations indicated that theuse of seat belts is one of the most effective ways toreduce road accident fatalities.
8,9
Other studies haveshown that when a road accident occurs, the use ofthe seat belt prevents certain types of injuries to ve-hicle occupants or mitigates their severity.
10-12
Safetyseat belts are preventive measures from mortalitybecause they restrain the body in the original posi-tion to a seat which has proved to reduce the risk offatal injury to front-seat passengers by 45% and therisk of moderate to critical injury by 50%. The seatbelt also helps the driver to control the vehicle ina crash situation as it holds the passenger in place.Serious injuries occurring to passengers in motor ve-hicles are often caused by people being thrown intoeach other during a crash.
13
If a person does not wearthe seat belt, that particular person could be thrownfrom his or her vehicle; through the windshield ordoor into trees, telephone poles or rocks, or run overby their own or someone else’s car. Another reason
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards
Road Tra
c Regulations Among University
Students, Malaysia
Redhwan AA and Karim AJ
Department of Medical Science, International Medical School, Management and Science University (MSU),40100, Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
ABSTRACTIntroduction:
Each year, more than 20 million people are injured and 1.17 million are killed due to road traf 
 fi
c accidents. Developing countries account for over 85% of the deaths, and close to 90% of the disability caused by road traf 
 fi
c crashes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge,attitudes and practice and the factors in
 fl
uencing university students in Malaysia concerning road traf 
 fi
caccident.
Materials and Methods:
 
This study was conducted among the students of Management and ScienceUniversity, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the Faculty of Healthand Life Sciences. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13, T-test and ANOVA.
 
Results:
 
The total number of 109 students with the mean age of 20.94±1.89 years participated in this study. Approximately 39 (35.7%)of the participant had been involved in one or more than one road traf 
 fi
c accident. About 93.6% of themwere very strongly/strongly convinced of seat belts importance. Multivariate analysis using the multiplelinear regression method showed that age and attitude were signi
 fi
cantly associated with the exposure tothe accident.
 
Conclusion:
 
The study participants had moderate knowledge about road traf 
 fi
c regulationsand most of them mentioned that high speed, drivers’ lack of awareness about traf 
 fi
c regulation and laws,and drivers’ non-compliance with traf 
 fi
c rules and regulation were the most important cause of road traf 
 fi
caccidents. Almost all students were very strongly/strongly convinced of seatbelts importance. Age and attitude were signi
 fi
cantly associated with the exposure to the accident.
KEYWORDS: Attitude, knowledge practice, road traf 
c regulation, university studentsINTRODUCTION
Road traf
c accidents are de
ned as fatal or non-fatalinjuries incurred as the result of road traf
c crashes.The crash is de
ned as a collision or incidence thatmay or may not lead to injury, occurring on a pub-lic road and involving at least one moving vehicle.
1
 Each year, more than 20 million people were injuredor crippled and 1.17 million killed due to road traf
caccidents.
2-4
This represents an average of 3,242 per-sons dying each day worldwide. In addition to thesedeaths, between 20 and 50 million people globallyare estimated to be injured or disabled every year.
1
Accidents are not frequently due to ignorance, but aredue to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over con
-dence. Robertson and researchers from Road SafetyAgency in USA have pointed out that road accidents
Corresponding addressRedhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar International Medical School, Management and Science University (MSU),Shah Alam, Malaysiae-mail: radhwan888@yahoo.com 
 
30
 
Volume 9 Number 2, December 2010
IMJM
The International Medical Journal Malaysia 
never=1. The practice factor was added and the rangeof the scores was between 6-24 points. Highest pointsindicated highest practice. The cut-off point of at-titude was 12. For the attitude, the following scoringsystem was followed: Convinced about the importanceof seat belt; 1=very weak, 2=weak, 3=strong, 4=verystrong. Insistence on passengers’ use of seat belt;1=never, 2=sometimes, 3=usually, 4=always. Reasonsthat make you use seat belt, 4= I like to comply withregulation, 3=I am convinced of importance of the useof seat belt, 2=seat belt has become compulsory prac-tice, 1= it is civilization phenomenon. Dif
culties youface when you use seat belt, 1= restriction of move-ment, 2= anxiety, 3= forgetfulness/others, 4=no dif-
culties. Effect of using seat belt, 1= no effect on therate of disabilities, 2=reduce rate and complications ofroad traf
c accident, 3=reduce disabilities caused byroad traf
c accident, 4= reduce the incidence of roadtraf
c accidents. Reason for using seat belt, 4=driversare convinced of the importance of using seat belt,3=positive impact of health education conducted bytraf
c road departments, 2=drivers are afraid of pun-ishment, 1= others.The entire attitude factors added and ranged from6-24 points. The cut-off point of both attitude andpractice was 12. For the purpose of this study, highknowledge, positive attitude and good practice wereconsidered desirable attributes of the participantswith higher compliance to road traf
c regulations.Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package forSocial Sciences Software (SPSS) version 13. T-testand ANOVA were performed to analyze the univariateanalysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was usedto assess the predictors’ variables of exposure to roadtraf
c accident.
RESULTS
The total number of the participants in this study was109 students from the Faculty of Health and Life Sci-ences (FHLS), Management and Science University(MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia. The mean age of the par-ticipant was 20.94±1.89 year, minimum age was 18year and maximum was 26 year. More than half of theparticipants 89 (81.7%) live in the city. The majorityof the students were from the Nursing Department 51(46.8%). About 60 (55%) of the participants had a driv-ing license. However 22 (20.2%) of them owned cars.For experience of driving, the majority of the partici-pants 49 (45%) had no experience, followed 25 (22.9%)had less than or equal to two years of driving experi-ence, then more than two years 35 (32.1%). More thanhalf of the students 70 (64.2%) had not been involvedin road traf
c accident. However 39 (35.7%) had beeninvolved in one or more than one road traf
c accident(Table I).The majority of the participants 85 (78%) mentionedthat they had moderate knowledge about road traf
cregulations and most of them 79 (72.5%) mentionedthat high speed, drivers’ lack of awareness about traf-
c regulation and laws, and drivers’ non-compliancefor road traf
c accident is using handheld mobile tel-ephone while driving. There is increasing evidencethat the use of a handheld mobile telephone whiledriving a motor vehicle increases the risk of a traf
caccident.
14-16
Developing countries account for over 85% of thedeaths, and close to 90% of the disability caused byroad traf
c crashes worldwide.
17
Also rapidly increas-ing motorization is outpacing the development oftransportation infrastructure. This fact is the primaryreason for the increasing numbers and rates of motorvehicle injuries in developing countries (Jacob et al.2000). Other factors that contribute to the high rateof accident in less developed countries include a highprevalence of old vehicles that often carry many morepeople than they are often designed to carry, lack ofsafety belt, poor road design and maintenance andthe traf
c mix on roads.
18
In Malaysia, cars are the most common vehicles in-volved in accidents, followed by motorcycles, Lorriesand vans.
19
According to the Ministry of Health, injuriesincluding road traf
c accidents are the third cause ofadmission and the
fth cause of death in Malaysian.
20
 According to Malaysian Road Safety Council statistics,there are more than ten causes of road accident inMalaysia. The common three causes are speeding(32.8%), careless driving (28.2%) and careless overtak-ing (15.1%). It showed that the driver’s behavior is themain cause of road accidents, contributing to 76.1%of all the causes of road accidents. Other factors aretailgating (driving too closely behind another vehicle)(3.8%) and road condition (3%).
21
The mandatory seatbelt law was enforced in the early seventies followingthe passing of the seat belt law. No previous studiesare available regarding the knowledge attitude andpractice towards the road traf
c regulation in Malay-sia. Therefore, the objectives of this study were todetermine the knowledge, attitudes and practice andthe factors in
uencing road traf
c accident of univer-sity students in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conducted over
ve months from Feb-ruary to June of the academic year 2009 among thestudents of Management and Science University, ShahAlam, Malaysia. The data was collected through theuse of the questionnaire, which consisted of fourparts, namely, socio-demographic, knowledge, at-titude and practice. The questionnaire contained 27questions. It was adopted from previous study con-ducted in Saudi Arabia.
23
It was distributed randomlyto the students of the Faculty of Health and Life Sci-ences through the lecturers in different departmentsnamely; Medical Science, Biomedicine and Nursing.This was completed under the direct supervision ofeach lecturer of the departments who returned themto the investigator.The questions were scored and categorized as fol-low: for practice, always=4, usually=3, sometimes=2,
 
 
Volume 9 Number 2, December 2010
31
Table III.
Attitude of the participants towards roadtraf
c regulations and accidents (n=109)
Table IV.
Practice of the participants towards roadtraf
c regulations and accidents (n=109)
Univariate analysis
Age was signi
cantly in
uenced by the exposure totraf
c road accident among university students. Placeof resident and speeding inside the city or in the high-with traf
c rules and regulation were the most impor-tant cause of road traf
c accidents (Table II).When the participants asked about the importance ofthe use of seat belt, about 93.6% were very strongly/strongly convinced of its importance. However, on thereasons for using seat belts, 52.3% felt convinced ofits use, followed by seat belt has become compulsorypractice (20.2%), participants liked to comply withregulations (17.4%), then seat belt is civilized phe-nomenon (10.1%) (Table III).The minimum speed reported by the respondents in-side the city was 40Km/H and maximum speed was100Km/H. The minimum speed in the highway was 70Km/H and maximum speed was 180Km/h. As far as ac-tion taken when the respondent remember to fastenseat belt, 36.7% reported that they try to slow downand then fasten the seatbelt, followed by stop thecar and then fasten the seatbelt (31.2%), the lowestresponse was reported by the respondent is fasten theseatbelt when any opportunity occurs (7.3%) (TableIV).
Table I.
Socio-demographic of the participants (n=109)
Table II.
Knowledge of the participants towards roadtraf
c regulations (n=109)

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