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Attitudes

Attitudes

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Published by sololex
attitudes to ict
attitudes to ict

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: sololex on Aug 02, 2008
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02/17/2013

 
ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS THE USE OFINFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHINGAND LEARNING BIOLOGYINTRODUCTIONBackground
Information and communications technology has become an essential aspect of everyones daily life with almost every sector advocating for the use of ICT toaccomplish its tasks on every inch of this planet. Nevertheless, some people would stillask themselves, “What is ICT?” There are various definitions of ICT according todifferent people and organizations.According to the ITAA, “Information Technology is the study, design, development,implementation, support or management of a computer-based “Information System” particularly software applications and computer hardware.” Recently the term has been broadened to explicitly integrate the aspect of “Electronic Communicationso that people prefer to abbreviate it as ICT.A broader definition of ICT is the combination of informatics technology with other,related technologies specifically communication technology (UNESCO, 2002). Thisdefinition of ICT consists of three subunits that have been collapsed into a singledefinition and they include; Informatics, Informatics Technology and Communicationtechnology. UNESCO defines
informatics
as the science dealing with the design,realization, evaluation, use, and maintenance of information processing systems,including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects, and the industrial,commercial, governmental and political implications of these. It is a term derived fromcomputing science.
 Informatics technology
is the technological application of informaticsin the society. Hence the definition of ICT implies that ICT will be used, applied andintegrated in activities of working and learning on the conceptual on the basis of 
 
informatics methods and conceptual understanding.OECD member countries in 1998 agreed to define the ICT sector as a combination of manufacturing and services industries that capture, transmit and display data andinformation electronically.The above definitions of ICT are examples of how it has become an important globalaspect in the field of information and communication. ICT is a revolution which linksdifferent sectors and modes of communication.The evolution of ICTs in Uganda dates way back to the 1990s when Africa responded tothe “Information revolution” that had been going on majority of other continents of theworld mainly Europe, Asia with Japan as the leading nation and the Americas. Withassistance from UNECA, ITU, UNESCO, IDRC and Bellanet secretariat, The AfricanInformation Society Initiative (AISI) was formed. The initiative was launched in 1996 to bridge the digital divide between Africa and the global community, creating digitalopportunities to be developed by Africans and their partners as well as speeding up thecontinent’s information and global knowledge economy. Uganda reacted to such callsslowly through various various Policies, Statutes, Laws, Acts and Regulations, passedand enacted in the past years. Some of those are the following;
The Telecommunications Policy was enacted in 1996 with the main objective of increasing the penetration and level of telecommunication services in the countrythrough private sector investment rather than government intervention.
The Rural Development’s Communication Policy of 2001 of providing access to basic communication services within reasonable distance to all people in Uganda.
The press and Journalist’s statue of 1995 extended from Article 29(1)
(Freedom of expression)
of the Constitution to the print media.
The Electronic Media Statute of 1996 created a licensing system, under theBroadcasting Council, for radio and television stations, cinemas, and videotaperental businesses.The above influenced rapid growth of ICT infrastructures since then. A table depicting
 
such growth is shown below.
SERVICESPRODIVEDDec1996Oct1998Dec1999July2001July2002June2003
Fixed lines connected45,14556,19658,26156,14854,97660,995Mobile Subscriber3,00012,00072,602276,034393,310621,082 National TelephoneOperators122222Mobile CellulaOperators122333Internet/Emailsubscribers5041,3084,2485,9996,6007,024VSAT InternationalData Gateways237888Internet ServiceProviders239111717Private FM RadioStations142837112115119Private TelevisionStations4811202222 National PostalOperators111111Courier ServiceProviders2711101114 
Introduction of ICT to Secondary schools in Uganda
The introduction of ICT in Ugandan secondary schools dates way back in 1990s when theWorld Bank through its World Links for Development (WorLD) program connectedschools to the internet. Three schools were initially connected in July 1996 and these are;Gayaza High School, Namilyango College and Mengo Senior Secondary School. This

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