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A Basic UNIX Tutorial

A Basic UNIX Tutorial

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A Basic Unix tutorial from Jonathan Byrd of Idaho State University.
A Basic Unix tutorial from Jonathan Byrd of Idaho State University.

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Published by: FeedYerBrain on Nov 28, 2010
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11/28/2010

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A Basic UNIX Tutorial
This tutorial comprises fourteen sections, each of which addresses a fundamental aspect of UNIXcomputing. It concentrates on illustrating the central concepts by providing short explanations, alongwith examples, and exercises.
This tutorial covers the "Introduction to UNIX" and "Intermediate UNIX" workshops offeredby the Idaho State University Computer Center. Check theISU workshop schedule to see when the workshops are offered.
Table of Contents
A broad description of the UNIX operating system.
General methods of accessing UNIX computers.
Gaining access to your UNIX account.
How to enter UNIX commands.
Storing and manipulating files.
How to manage input and output.
Creating processing pipelines.
 
Managing processes.
More on managing processes.
Creating and editing text files with the emacs editor.
The environment under which shell commands and programs run.
Personalizing your UNIX shell environment.
Tips and tricks to enhance your efficiency with the command line interface.
A closer look at UNIX files and directories. 
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Section 1: What Is Unix?
Unix is an
operating system
. The job of an operating system is to orchestrate the various parts of thecomputer -- the processor, the on-board memory, the disk drives, keyboards, video monitors, etc. --to perform useful tasks. The operating system is the master controller of the computer, the glue thatholds together all the components of the system, including the administrators, programmers, andusers. When you want the computer to do something for you, like start a program, copy a file, ordisplay the contents of a directory, it is the operating system that must perform those tasks for you.More than anything else, the operating system gives the computer its recognizable characteristics. Itwould be difficult to distinguish between two completely different computers, if they were runningthe same operating system. Conversely, two identical computers, running different operatingsystems, would appear completely different to the user.Unix was created in the late 1960s, in an effort to provide a multiuser, multitasking system for use byprogrammers. The philosophy behind the design of Unix was to provide simple, yet powerfulutilities that could be pieced together in a flexible manner to perform a wide variety of tasks.The Unix operating system comprises three parts: The kernel, the standard utility programs, and thesystem configuration files.
The kernel
The kernel is the core of the Unix operating system. Basically, the kernel is a large program that isloaded into memory when the machine is turned on, and it controls the allocation of hardwareresources from that point forward. The kernel knows what hardware resources are available (like theprocessor(s), the on-board memory, the disk drives, network interfaces, etc.), and it has the necessaryprograms to talk to all the devices connected to it.
The standard utility programs
These programs include simple utilities like cp, which copies files, and complex utilities, like theshell that allows you to issue commands to the operating system.
The system configuration files
The system configuration files are read by the kernel, and some of the standard utilities. The Unixkernel and the utilities are flexible programs, and certain aspects of their behavior can be controlledby changing the standard configuration files. One example of a system configuration file is thefilesystem table "fstab" , which tells the kernel where to find all the files on the disk drives. Anotherexample is the system log configuration file "syslog.conf", which tells the kernel how to record thevarious kinds of events and errors it may encounter.

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