more homogeneous than out-groups. Furthermore, for collectivists, behaviour must be“appropriate” and whether attitudes are or are not consistent is trivial matter for them.
Emphases on Family
Confucian philosophy has been the most powerful influence shaping the Chineseculture, the conceptions of Chinese for thousands of years. Undoubtedly, it is composed of the dominant value system in Chinese societies. In Confucianism, nothing is more importantfor good government and peace than proper family relationships. In Confucianism, the familyis the framework for establishing graceful interactions with others. It is still the single mostimportant social institution in imparting ways of learning to be human. Therefore, familyeducation is importantly attached as a component for the children’s growth.
The Five Cardinal Relationships
The ethical arrangements for interpersonal relationships established with the conceptsof benevolence (ren), righteousness (yi), and propriety (li) in Confucianism. Behaviour thatfavours people with whom has a close relationship can be termed benevolence; respectingthose for whom respect is required by the relationship is called righteousness; and actingaccording to previously established rite or social norms is called propriety. Confucius advisedthat social interaction should begin with an assessment of the role relationship betweenoneself and others along two social dimensions: intimacy/distance and superiority/inferiority(Hwang, 1999).In Confucianism, how to make harmony in dealing with relationship issues isemphasized. The component of hierarchy is certainly important. To demonstrate thishierarchy are the five cardinal relationships as below (Kim, 1979):
The parent-child relationship is considered life’s most stable, unchanging, lastingrelationship. Filial piety is the main emphasis symbolizing the ethics in thisrelationship. In Chinese traditional concepts, only a son can make efforts to the family, and adaughter is worthless because she will be one of the other family’s belongings anyway.Therefore, sons won almost all the parents’ love, and stand on a higher position thandaughters in the family. Thus, a daughter’s filial piety to her parents was less critical than ason’s. In fact, in the original wording of this relationship was father-son. This relationshipcould expand to the relationship between elder generation and young generation. Theyounger generation should show his/her respect to the elders in the society.
This relationship symbolizes loyalty. The ruler-subject relationship can be seen as anextension of the parents- child relationship, just as parents care for their children. In the sameway, it is an obligation for the ruler to take care for his subjects. To put loyalty into practice,one as a subject or a child ought to respect and obey the ruler or parents because it is morallyright and obligatory to do so.
3. Elder Brother-Younger Broth
erThe elder brother-younger brother relationship represents the inherent higher status of someone who is senior in age, experience, and therefore, presumably, wisdom. Furthermore,this kind of relationship is not restricted only to blood brothers. It can be extended to anysenior-junior relationship in the group, organization, and society.
In stark contrast to American culture, the Confucian husband-wife relationship has beenmarked by segregation. This relationship is standing on the status of man and woman inChinese society. In ancient Chinese society, marriage did not signify the formation of a newfamily. Instead, marriage signified the extension of an existing family, namely, of course the