Metabolic pathway engineering for the production of L-ascorbic acid
Institute Of Chemical Engineering, Mumbai
Ascorbic acid or
L-Ascorbic acid, L-xylo-Ascorbic acid, L-threo-hex-2-enoic acid
is IUPAC name for Vitamin C (ULLMANN’S Encyclopedia vol. 38).All known disease called scurvy was known to human from ancient (Egyptians) ageoccurred due to deficiency of Vitamin C. But this is not known up to 1753 when James Linddescribed it to be cured by dietary mean (ULLMANN’S Encyclopedia vol. 38).Later on many peoples were working on Ascorbic acid. In which, Szent and Gyorgyi(1928) first isolated ascorbic acid form adrenal gland and from plant tissue by Herbert et al.(1933). Chemical synthesis of L-ascorbic acid from L-xylosone was achieved. This work isalso done by Haworth and Hirst (1933). They also propose the chemical structure forAscorbic acid, Reichstein et al. (1933). Biochemical reaction for preparation of Ascorbicfrom D-Glucose was introduced by Reichstein and Grössner (1934) and this sequence isadapted for manufacturing of Ascorbic acid industrially (Hancock and R. Viola, 2001).This plays very important role in the human as conjunctive tissue formation, iontransportation and cell protection against free radicals. In plants, act against reactive oxygenspecies that are formed from Photosynthesis and Respiratory processes. It also linked withcell growth, cell cycle and cofactor for many enzymes (Anderson et al., 2004).Wide range of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion andHydroxyl radicals which have been implicated with many chronic disorders including cancerand cardiovascular disease.