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Structural Systems Offshore

Structural Systems Offshore

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Published by tambok

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Published by: tambok on Nov 29, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction
To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structuralrequirements for design are generated.
The lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the development process (fromseismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). Themajor codes are identified.For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Specialattention is given to some principles of topside design.A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented.Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.
Offshore platforms are constructed to produce the hydrocarbons oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to theworld energy consumption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000.The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depictedin the table below.
Condition CAPEX $/B/D OPEX $/BConventionalAverage 4000 - 8000 5Middle East 500 - 3000 1Non-Opec 3000 - 12000 8OffshoreNorth Sea 10000 - 25000 5 - 10Deepwater 15000 - 35000 10 - 15World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growingcontribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity.Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarbons. It also indicatesthe onshore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany.

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