Learning and Development are Essential
It is imperative that councillors, municipal ocials and their contracted agents understand the new policies, andcooperate in developing new approaches to urban planning and upgrading, in partnership with communitiesand community-based organisations. This will require a clear, shared vision, political will and the commitmentand participation o all stakeholders at local level in appropriate processes.New and innovative approaches will require signicant learning, and the development o new ways o working,rom writing terms o reerence based on integration and sustainability to clearing bureaucratic obstacles andaccessing innovative unding options. Municipalities will need clear policies on development acilitation, and theywill need to develop and contract the capacities required to acilitate sustainable settlement development.
Principles or Designing Sustainable Settlements
The rst principle is to understand settlements as living and evolving human communities, and not just acollection o physical structures that can be erected and orgotten. The built environment should providea suitable ‘body’ or the lie processes, social interaction and development o the soul and spirit o thecommunity and its individual members and amilies.Sustainable settlement planning should create a built environment that supports sustainable livelihoods andliving in well-designed and integrated social, economic and environmental contexts. The ollowing principlesshould guide the holistic planning o such settlements. Key components include good urban and housingdesign, integration o built and natural environments, sustainable technologies, methods and materials, andcommunity participation in development processes.
Though many applicants or subsidised housing want stand-alone units, the cost and scarcity o well-locatedland and escalating transport costs makes this option increasingly unsustainable in larger towns and cities.Urban sprawl also creates ineciencies in service provision, and reduces valuable agricultural land andpotential green open spaces. Mixed-use development corridors with increased density can provide ecientpublic transport, local economic opportunities and varied services in residential areas.Proper and progressive land planning and management are needed to provide land or ormal settlements,or properly designed and managed inormal settlements, and to curb land invasions and overcrowdedsettlements on unsuitable, un-serviced and oten unserviceable land such as food plains.
Integration and Mixed-Use Development
Neighbourhoods are enriched by the integration o dierent social groups and income levels. Physical andunctional integration include provision o essential services within walking distance to limit the need ormotorized transport, integration o private and public spaces and o the built and green environment. Mixed useallows and encourages multiple activities, including living, working, trading, accessing services, appropriate