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histology #01

histology #01

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Published by hamza jassar

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Published by: hamza jassar on Aug 03, 2008
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10/19/2010

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We
 
have
 
many
 
types
 
of 
 
stains,
 
the
 
most
 
important
 
are:
 
 
Both
 
H
 
&
 
E
 
are
 
the
 
most
 
used
 
in
 
hospital.
 
 
Other
 
stains
 
(will
 
be
 
discussed
 
in
 
detailes
 
later
 
on)
 
1.
 
Some
 
special
 
stains
 
that
 
stain
 
the
 
cytoplasm
 
with
 
green
 
2.
 
Metachromatic
 
(
 
=changing
 
in
 
color)
 
stains:
 
such
 
as
 
some
 
which
 
are
 
blue
 
but
 
they
 
stain
 
the
 
cell
 
with
 
red
 
(metachromate)
 
3.
 
PAS
 
stain
 
(Periodic
 
Acid
 
Schiff’s
 
reaction):
 
for
 
carbohydrate
 
components,
 
such
 
as
 
those
 
in
 
basement
 
membrane,
 
see
 
page
 
7
 
4.
 
Silver
 
salts:
 
which
 
reacts
 
with
 
them
 
argyrophillic
 
(silver
 
loving)
 
components,
 
such
 
as
 
those
 
in
 
the
 
basement
 
membrane,
 
page
 
7
 
 
Basophilic
Hematoxylin
 
(H)Nucleus
 
(always
 
blue,
 
if 
 
the
 
cell
 
wasn't
 
properly
 
stained
 
it
 
will
 
be
 
red),
 
ribosomes
 
(seen
 
as
 
granules
 
associated
 
with
 
rough
 
ER,
 
especially
 
in
 
neurons)WHY?
 
DNA,
 
RNA
 
are
 
acidsBlue
 
to
 
violet
Acidophilic
Eosin
 
(E)mitochondria,
 
smooth
 
ER,
 
and
 
other
 
organells
 
which
 
show
 
the
 
cytoplasm
 
in
 
deep
 
red
 
colorRed
 
to
 
pink
 
There
 
are
 
some
 
notes
 
that
 
you
 
should
 
know,
 
you
 
can
 
add
 
them
 
to
 
your
 
handout
 
because
 
they
 
are
 
 just
 
“missing
 
pieces”:
 
Page
 
1
 
 
Epithelium
 
is
 
avascular
 
(has
 
no
 
blood
 
vessels),
 
how
 
does
 
it
 
get
 
its
 
nutrition?
 
 
It
 
is
 
always
 
connected
 
to
 
a
 
connective
 
tissue,
 
which
 
is
 
very
 
vascular,
 
so
 
it
 
gets
 
its
 
nutrition
 
by
 
the
 
process
 
of 
 
diffusion.
 
 
If 
 
the
 
cancer
 
is
 
from
 
surface
 
epithelium,
 
it’s
 
called
 
carcinoma
,
 
if 
 
it
 
was
 
from
 
glandular
 
epithelium,
 
it’s
 
called
 
adenocarcinoma
.
 
 
Special
 
epithelium,
 
also
 
called:
 
receptors
.
 
 
When
 
we
 
say
 
shape
,
 
we
 
mean
 
the
 
nuclei
 
shapes
,
 
because
 
we
 
can’t
 
see
 
the
 
boundaries
 
of 
 
cells
 
easily.
 
Page
 
2
 
 
WATCH
 
OUT!!
 
Small
 
ducts
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
simple
 
cuboidal,
 
large
 
ducts
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
pseudostratified.
 
 
Low
 
columnar
 
epithelium:
 
between
 
columnar
 
and
 
cuboidal.
 
 
Proximal
 
convoluted
 
tubes
 
are
 
either
 
columnar
 
or
 
low
 
columnar.
 
 
Large
 
bronchioles
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
pseudo,
 
small
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
columnar.
 
 
Except
 
for
 
the
 
alveoli
 
and
 
small
 
bronchioles,
 
the
 
respiratory
 
passages
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
pseudo.
 
So
 
we
 
can
 
describe
 
the
 
respiratory
 
passages
 
to
 
be:
 
pseudostratified,
 
ciliated,
 
with
 
goblet
 
(mucus
 
secreting)
 
cells.
 
 
Mucus
 
is
 
for
 
humidity
 
Page
 
3
 
 
Skin
 
is
 
2
 
layers:
 
epidermis
 
(keratinized
 
epithelium),
 
dermis
 
(connective
 
tissue)
 
 
Conjunctiva:
 
mucus
 
membrane
 
on
 
the
 
eyeball
 
and
 
eyelids
 
(connects
 
them
 
to
 
each
 
other),
 
 ةمحتملا
.
 
 
Transitional
 
epithelium:
 
o
 
The
 
outermost
 
cells
 
have
 
neither
 
of 
 
the
 
previous
 
shapes,
 
they
 
are
 
dome
 
shaped
,
 
and
 
a
 
one
 
cell
 
may
 
contain
 
2
 
nuclei.
 
o
 
If 
 
the
 
layers
 
were
 
compressed
 
and
 
subjected
 
to
 
pressure
 
(as
 
in
 
the
 
bladder),
 
some
 
their
 
number
 
will
 
decrease
 
for
 
example
 
from
 
6
 
to
 
4,
 
that
 
happens
 
by
 
some
 
layers
 
becoming
 
between
 
the
 
others,
 
and
 
that’s
 
why
 
we
 
call
 
this
 
type
 
transitional
.
 
 
The
 
germinal
 
epithelium
 
cells
 
are
 
actually
 
the
 
1ry
 
spermatocytes,
 
2ry,
 
spermatids,
 
sperms…
 

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