3for occasional clean-ups. As Bonham noted, “It worked beautifully, and now we haveabout over 60 parks in the program.” Since the 1990s, Philadelphia Green has continuallyexpanded its greening programs to include improving streetscapes, developing pocketgardens, landscaping prominent public sites, greening high-profile street corridors,linking storm-water management with open space utilization, and managing vacant lands.In 2001 Philadelphia Green articulated its many urban greening projects into acomprehensive “Green City Strategy,” a plan for urban revitalization that was based onurban greening and included community gardening as one of the means to that end. In2003 the city of Philadelphia adopted the strategy as part of its NeighborhoodTransformation Initiative, which will be discussed in more detail below.
Two other key organizations have played an important role in the success of community gardens in the city. From 1977 through 2004, the Urban Gardening Programof the Pennsylvania State Cooperative Extension in Philadelphia County has assistedcommunity gardeners by training youth, providing classes to enable residents to becomemaster gardeners, and helping groups start and improve community gardens. In 1986 anew organization was formed—Neighborhood Gardens Association, a Philadelphia LandTrust—in order to acquire properties with land tenure risk. Although it is estimated thatPhiladelphia is home to over 40,000 vacant buildings and abandoned lots, some of thecommunity gardens faced closure due to development pressure. As of 2005 theorganization held title to about two dozen gardens in the city, including communityvegetable gardens, sitting parks and flower gardens.
A survey by the American Community Garden Association in 1996 found thatPhiladelphia was home to about 1135 community gardens, giving the city the distinctionof having one of the highest levels of community gardening in the U.S., both in terms of the absolute number of gardens and gardens per capita.
However, Bonham notes thatPhiladelphia Green completed a survey a few years ago, and they estimated that the totalnumber of vibrant gardens was a much more modest figure of about 500. He noted thatsome of the gardens had been built on;, for others, neighborhoods declined significantly,or coordinators moved or became too old to manage the site. Based on their experiencewith the collapse of some community gardens, both Philadelphia Green and theNeighborhood Gardens Association have been strategic in their selection of gardens to