Additional Note 4 (b)
Redistillation by a very thorough fractionation process means distillation (other than topping) by a continuous or batchprocess employed in industrial installations using distillates of subheadings 2710 00 11 to 2710 00 68, 2711 11 00,2711 12 91 to 2711 19 00, 2711 21 00 and 2711 29 00 (other than propane of a purity of 99 % or more) to obtain:1. isolated high-purity hydrocarbons (90 % or more in the case of olefins and 95 % or more in the case of otherhydrocarbons), mixtures of isomers having the same organic composition being regarded as isolated hydrocarbons.1.Only those processes by means of which at least three different products are obtained are admissible, but this restrictiondoes not apply in any instance where the process consists in the separation of isomers. In so far as this concerns xylenes,ethylbenzene is included with xylene isomers;2. products of subheadings 2707 10 10 to 2707 30 90, 2707 50 10 and 2707 50 90 and 2710 00 11 to 2710 00 68:2.(a) with no overlapping of the final boiling point of one fraction and the initial boiling point of the succeeding fractionand a difference of not more than 60
C between the temperatures at which 5 and 90 % by volume (including losses)distil by the ASTM D 86-67 method (reapproved 1972);2.(b) with an overlapping of the final boiling point of one fraction and the initial boiling point of the succeeding fractionand a difference of not more than 30
C between the temperatures at which 5 and 90 % by volume (including losses)distil by the ASTM D 86-67 method (reapproved 1972).
Additional Note 4 (c) Cracking is an industrial process for modifying the chemical structure of petroleum products by breaking downthe molecules by heating, with or without pressure and with or without the assistance of a catalyst, thusproducing, in particular, mixtures of lighter hydrocarbons which may be liquid or gaseous at normal tempera-tures and pressures.
The chief cracking processes are:1. thermal cracking;2. catalytic cracking;3. steam cracking to obtain gaseous hydrocarbons;4. hydrocracking (cracking plus hydrogenation);5. dehydrogenation;6. dealkylation;7. coking;8. visbreaking.
Additional Note 4 (d)
Reforming is the thermal or catalytic processing of light or medium oils to increase their content of aromatics. Catalyticreforming is used, for example, to convert straight-distillation light oils into light oils with a higher octane number (with ahigher content of aromatic hydrocarbons) or into a mixture of hydrocarbons containing benzene, toluene, xylenes,ethylbenzene, etc.The principal catalytic reforming processes are those employing platinum as the catalyst.
Additional Note 4(e)
Extraction by means of selective solvents is the process of separating groups of products with different molecular struc-tures by means of substances having a preferential solvent effect (for example, furfural, phenol, dichlorethyl ether, sulphu-ric anhydride, nitrobenzene, urea and certain of its derivatives, acetone, propane, ethyl methyl ketone, isobutyl methylketone, glycol, morpholine).
Additional Note 4 (g)
Polymerization is the industrial process, whether or not involving heating or the use of a catalyst, by means of whichunsaturated hydrocarbons are made to form their polymers or copolymers.
Additional Note 4 (h)
Alkylation means any thermal or catalytic reaction in which unsaturated hydrocarbons are united with any otherhydrocarbons, in particular, isoparaffins and aromatics.
Official Journal of the European Communities