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CHAPTER 27
MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION; BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES;MINERAL WAXESGeneral
Unless otherwise indicated, the term ‘ASTM method’ means the methods laid down by the American Society for Testing and Materials,published in the 1976 edition of standard definitions and specifications for petroleum and lubricating products.
Note 2
The content of aromatic constituents is to be determined by the following methods:products with a distillation end point not exceeding 315
o
C: ASTM D 1319-70 method;
products with a distillation end point exceeding 315
o
C: see Annex A of the Explanatory Notes to this chapter.
Additional Note 4
1. It is to be noted that, except as provided in Additional Note 4 (n), the exemption applies to the whole of the productsused in the specific process.1.Accordingly, where a petroleum product is subjected, for example, to alkylation or polymerization, that part which is noteffectively transformed (alkylated or polymerized) also benefits from the exemption.2. In cases where preliminary treatment is necessary before a ‘specific process’ (see final paragraph of Additional Note 4)two conditions must be met in order to obtain the benefit of exemption:2.(a) the imported product must be effectively subjected to a ‘specific process’, for example, cracking;2.(b) the preliminary treatment must be necessary to the ‘specific process’.2.The following in particular are regarded as necessary preparatory treatments for products intended for undergoing a‘specific process’:2.(a) degassing;2.(b) dehydration;2.(c) removal of certain light or heavy products which might interfere with processing;2.(d) removal or conversion of mercaptans (softening), of other sulphur compounds or of other compounds which mightprejudice processing;2.(e) neutralization;2.(f) decantation;2.(g) desalination.2.Any products which may be obtained in the course of a preparatory treatment but which do not undergo a specificprocess are liable to the customs duties applicable to products ‘for other purposes’, according to the kind and value of theimported goods and on the basis of the net weight of the products so obtained.
Additional Note 4 (a)
Vacuum distillation means distillation under a pressure not exceeding 400 mbar, measured at the head of the column.
Official Journal of the European Communities
13.7.2000106
EN
 
Additional Note 4 (b)
Redistillation by a very thorough fractionation process means distillation (other than topping) by a continuous or batchprocess employed in industrial installations using distillates of subheadings 2710 00 11 to 2710 00 68, 2711 11 00,2711 12 91 to 2711 19 00, 2711 21 00 and 2711 29 00 (other than propane of a purity of 99 % or more) to obtain:1. isolated high-purity hydrocarbons (90 % or more in the case of olefins and 95 % or more in the case of otherhydrocarbons), mixtures of isomers having the same organic composition being regarded as isolated hydrocarbons.1.Only those processes by means of which at least three different products are obtained are admissible, but this restrictiondoes not apply in any instance where the process consists in the separation of isomers. In so far as this concerns xylenes,ethylbenzene is included with xylene isomers;2. products of subheadings 2707 10 10 to 2707 30 90, 2707 50 10 and 2707 50 90 and 2710 00 11 to 2710 00 68:2.(a) with no overlapping of the final boiling point of one fraction and the initial boiling point of the succeeding fractionand a difference of not more than 60
o
C between the temperatures at which 5 and 90 % by volume (including losses)distil by the ASTM D 86-67 method (reapproved 1972);2.(b) with an overlapping of the final boiling point of one fraction and the initial boiling point of the succeeding fractionand a difference of not more than 30
o
C between the temperatures at which 5 and 90 % by volume (including losses)distil by the ASTM D 86-67 method (reapproved 1972).
Additional Note 4 (c) Cracking is an industrial process for modifying the chemical structure of petroleum products by breaking downthe molecules by heating, with or without pressure and with or without the assistance of a catalyst, thusproducing, in particular, mixtures of lighter hydrocarbons which may be liquid or gaseous at normal tempera-tures and pressures.
The chief cracking processes are:1. thermal cracking;2. catalytic cracking;3. steam cracking to obtain gaseous hydrocarbons;4. hydrocracking (cracking plus hydrogenation);5. dehydrogenation;6. dealkylation;7. coking;8. visbreaking.
Additional Note 4 (d)
Reforming is the thermal or catalytic processing of light or medium oils to increase their content of aromatics. Catalyticreforming is used, for example, to convert straight-distillation light oils into light oils with a higher octane number (with ahigher content of aromatic hydrocarbons) or into a mixture of hydrocarbons containing benzene, toluene, xylenes,ethylbenzene, etc.The principal catalytic reforming processes are those employing platinum as the catalyst.
Additional Note 4(e)
Extraction by means of selective solvents is the process of separating groups of products with different molecular struc-tures by means of substances having a preferential solvent effect (for example, furfural, phenol, dichlorethyl ether, sulphu-ric anhydride, nitrobenzene, urea and certain of its derivatives, acetone, propane, ethyl methyl ketone, isobutyl methylketone, glycol, morpholine).
Additional Note 4 (g)
Polymerization is the industrial process, whether or not involving heating or the use of a catalyst, by means of whichunsaturated hydrocarbons are made to form their polymers or copolymers.
Additional Note 4 (h)
Alkylation means any thermal or catalytic reaction in which unsaturated hydrocarbons are united with any otherhydrocarbons, in particular, isoparaffins and aromatics.
Official Journal of the European Communities
13.7.2000 107
EN
 
Additional Note 4 (ij)
Isomerization is the reforming of the structure of the constituents of petroleum products without altering their gross com-position.
Additional Note 4 (l)
The following are examples of deparaffining for the purposes of this Additional Note:1. deparaffining by cooling (with or without solvents);2. microbiological treatment;3. deparaffining by means of urea;4. molecular sieve treatment.
Additional Note 4 (n)
Atmospheric distillation means distillation carried out at a pressure of about 1 013 mbar, measured at the head of the col-umn.
Additional Note 5 1. ‘Chemical transformation’ means any operation for the molecular modification of one or more constituents of a petroleum product undergoing processing.
1.The mere mixing of a petroleum product with another product, whether or not also of petroleum, is not regarded as a‘chemical transformation’. The incorporation of white spirit into paint, for example, or of a base oil into printing ink, isnot to be regarded as falling within the definition of ‘chemical transformation’. This is also the case with all uses of petroleum products as solvents or fuels.2. Examples of ‘chemical transformations’:2.(a) treatment with halogens or halogen compounds:2. (a)(i)iiiireaction with propylene present in a gaseous petroleum fraction in order to obtain organic derivatives (for example, to obtain propylene oxide);2. (a)(ii)iiitreatment of petroleum fractions (motor spirit, kerosene, gas oil), paraffins, petroleum waxes or paraffinic resi- dues with chlorine or chlorine compounds in order to obtain chloroparaffins;2.(b) treatment with bases (for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium hydroxides) in order to obtain naphthenic acids;2.(c) treatment with sulphuric acid or its anhydride:2. (c)(i)iiiito obtain sulphonates; 2. (c)(ii)iiito extract or obtain isobutylene; 2. (c)(iii)iifor the sulphonation of gas oils and lubricating oils. 2. (c) (iii) iiOil added after sulphonation is not eligible for exemption;2.(d) sulphochlorination;2.(e) hydration, particularly for obtaining alcohols by modification of unsaturated hydrocarbons present in gaseous petro-leum fractions;2.(f) treatment with maleic anhydride, in particular, treatment of butadiene mixed with a gaseous petroleum fractioncontaining four carbon atoms in order to obtain tetrahydrophthalic acid;2.(g) treatment with phenol, for example, reaction of petroleum olefins with phenols in the presence of a catalyst in orderto obtain alkylphenols;
Official Journal of the European Communities
13.7.2000108
EN

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